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Cuba's Wild EastA Literary Geography of Oriente$

Peter Hulme

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9781846317484

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.5949/UPO9781846317170

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(p.440) Index

(p.440) Index

Source:
Cuba's Wild East
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
26 July Movement 67, 327, 329, 334, 348, 358
Abeel, A.H. 197
Abu Ghraib 392, 393–94
Adams, Brooks 172, 175–76
Adams, John Quincy 11–13
adolescent fiction 219–21
adventure novels 156–57
Agamben, Giorgio 374, 375
Agramonte, Ignacio 44
agrarian revolution 291, 292, 294 see also farmers; peasants
Aguilera, Eugenio 279
Aguilera, Pedro 279
Ahora 283
Alarcón, Ricardo 68–70
and The Mambi-Land (O'Kelly) 65–67
Alegría de Pío 18
Alger, Horatio 219
Almenares Argüello, José 117, 118
al-Qahtani, Mohammed 393–94, 397
Álvarez, Lino 288–90, 294–96, 305, 331
Amantes del País [Lovers of the Country] 77
‘America’ 90, 183–85
American Indians 75–76, 88, 94–95, 153–54 see also Cuban Indians; US Indians
American tropics 2–4, 75
Americanism
and Martí 92–97
and Roosevelt 93–94
Americanist ideology 54
Anglo-Saxon Review 194–95
Anglo-Saxonism 90–92, 172, 175–78, 203–04, 221
annexation of Cuba to the USA 11–13, 43, 68, 222
anthropology 116–19, 154–55
Arabic speakers in Cuba 390
Arán, Dolores (Lola) 101
El Aserradero 206–07, 227, 263
Augé, Marc 382–83
Austin, Alfred 177
Axeen, David 275
Bacardí Lay, Emilio 165, 168
Balboa, Silvestre de 33–35
Espejo de paciencia [Paragon of Patience] 20–22, 43, 54
baroque reading of 30–36
as a defence of Bayamo 34–35
a local poem 36
national reading of 25–30, 33–34
rediscovery of 40–41
sonnets in 26–27
Barnet, Miguel, ‘autobiography’ of Esteban Montejo 111
Barreiro, José 120–22
Barrell, John 42
Batista, Fulgencio 232, 259–60, 299, 303, 327–28, 329
and arms procurement 367
Castro, offensive against 352
and censorship 316–20
fall from power 368
and the general strike 280–81
(p.441) killings and executions ordered by 300–301
and Realengo 18: 290
Bay of Pigs invasion (Playa Girón) 369, 371
Bayamo 27, 35, 36, 43, 226, 236–37
capture of 17, 263
history of 20–25
Begg, Moazzem 384, 394
Benfey, Christopher 194
Benítez-Rojo, Antonio 23, 36, 39–42
Bennett, Jr., James Gordon 18, 44, 59–60
Berkeley, George 76
Bethlehem Iron Company 130, 131
Billman, Howbert 195–96
Bird, Arthur, Looking Forward: A Dream of the United States of the Americas 222–23
Boer War 375
Bojórquez Urzaiz, Carlos E. 95
Bonsal, Stephen 206
Boquerón 372
Boston Journal 179
Boti, Regino E., ‘Sortilegio’ 398
boucans [barbecue] 53
Briggs, Ellis O. 259
Britain 172–73, 175–77
selling arms to Cuba 366–69
British Foreign Office 60–62
British Secret Service 361–63
Brown, Charles H., The Correspondents' War 185
Bryson, George E. 114
Burgess, John W. 180
Burke, Richard O'Sullivan 142
Bush, George H.W. 381
Bush, George W. 381
Butler, Judith 381–82
Caffrey, Jefferson 299
Caimanera 372, 376
Canada 240
Canary Islands 34
El Caney 117, 201–02
Capron, Allyn 212
Caribbean, the 99, 116, 151–52
Caribs 97, 154–55
and Siboneys 86, 87
Carpentier, Alejo, Concierto barroco [Baroque Concerto] 30–32
Carricarte, Arturo R. de 108–09
Casa de las Américas 68
Casasús, Juan 273
Casaus, Víctor 284, 295
Casey, Edward 98, 374, 383
Castelar, Emilio 63–64
Castillo Duany, Joaquín 279
Castro, Fidel 69, 252, 265, 312, 316, 326
and the 26 July Movement 334
and British arms purchases 368–69
and Calixto García 204
cartoon in National Review 331
and Céspedes 18–20, 67, 71–72
on Havana and Oriente 358–60
History will absolve me 66
interviewed by Carlos Franqui 349–50
interviewed by Matthews 325, 330, 331–32, 334
interviewed for CBS documentary film 348–54
invasion force led by 26, 314, 320–23
and Martí 66
and the Moncada barracks attack 348
on Narciso López 68
on Pico Turquino 349
rumours of his death 323
in the Sierra Maestra 326–27, 357–60
and Thermopylae 54
‘They are Losing the War’ (communiqué) 352–53
Castro, Raúl 66, 357, 360, 376
Casuso, Teresa (widow of Pablo de la Torriente Brau) 284
(p.442) Los Cayuelos 18, 320, 321
CBS documentary film on the Cuban rebels 348–54
censorship 316–20
Centro Cultural Pablo de la Torriente Brau, Havana 284
Cepero Bonilla, Raúl 67
Céspedes, Carlos Manuel de 17–19, 58, 64–65, 69, 86, 357
‘Al pie del Monte Turquino’ [At the foot of Mount Turquino] 341–42
journal of 64–65
meeting with O'Kelly 53, 55–58
place in the Cuban Revolution 65–71
search for 44
Chamberlain, Joseph 176–77
Chandler, William E. 172
Cheney, Dick, and the paradise trope 390
Chesney, George T., The Battle of Dorking 221
Chester, Edmund 330
Chicago Columbian Exposition (1893) 148, 154
Chicago Haymarket riots (1886) 90
Childers, James and James Howell Street, Tomorrow We Reap 161–62
China 224
chivalry 146–47, 157–58
Churchill, Randolph S. 140
Churchill, Winston
History of the English-Speaking Peoples 177
visit to Cuba 139–41
Cisneros, Evangelina [Evangelina Cosío y Cisneros] 142–46
Clavigero, Francisco, Storia antica del Messico 77
Clay, Henry 214–15
Cleveland, Grover 125–26
Collazo Tejada, Enrique 180, 237, 252, 253–54, 273
Collazo Tejada, Tomás 253
colonial space 373–77, 382
and the ‘contact zone’ 14
Columbus, Christopher 7, 28, 34, 37–38, 266–67, 389–90
La Comandancia La Plata 356
communism 335–36
confidence and ‘confidence man’ 277–78
Crane, Stephen 7, 171, 185, 186–89, 193, 201–02
and the attack on Cuzco well 191, 192–93
‘In the First Land Fight Four of Our Men are Killed’ 189
‘Marines Signaling Under Fire at Guantanamo’ 192, 194
portrayal of Cubans 196–97
The Red Badge of Courage 187
‘The Red Badge of Courage was his Wig-Wag Flag’ 191–92, 195
reports from Cuba and Puerto Rico 187–88
reports from Guantánamo Bay 102
on Rowan 230–31
‘War Memories’ 194–95
on wig-wagging 191–94
Wounds in the Rain 124, 187–88
Crawford, John V. 60–62
creoles 26–27, 29, 34, 36–43, 77, 93
language of 104
Crèvecoeur, J. Hector St John de, Letters from an American Farmer 77
Crittenden, William Logan 215
Cuba 5–7, 9–13, 15, 17–18, 62–64, 69, 84
Cuba and the Caribbean, map of 3
cubanidad [Cubanness] 342
geography of 1, 4–9, 10
and the Cuban Revolution 314–20, 337–40
Jamaica-Cuba axis 267–69
Oriente, map of 5
(p.443) in relation to other countries 306–07
sea routes 266–69
Irish connections of 51–52
lo cubano [what is Cuban] 39, 40–41, 79
population of 26–27, 34, 37–38 see also Cuban Indians
as the US south 168–69
Cuba grande 40–42
Cuba pequeña 40–42
‘cubalogues’ 351
Cuban Communist Party 281, 288
Cuban countryside 78, 104–05, 133–35, 261–62
Cuban flag 68, 354
Cuban flora and fauna 26–27, 32, 83, 287
iguanas 395
jutías 395–97, 396
Cuban government 182, 222
Cuban Indians 18, 28–32, 78, 116–20, 149–56, 343, 374–75
in Baracoa 121
genocide of 34, 84–85, 88
in Guantánamo district 103
‘half-breeds’ 155, 156
history of 83, 85
Siboneys 83–88
vocabulary of 83, 104–05
in the war of independence 122
Cuban insurgents, in exile 267–68
Cuban missile crisis 224, 370–71
Cuban republic (1902) 280
Cuban Revolution 65–71, 331, 376
and geography 314–20, 337–40 see also Castro, Fidel
Cuban sea routes 266–69
Cuban troops 190, 191–92, 202–04, 265, 269–76
portrayal of 194–98, 207, 209, 212–14, 219, 264
Culin, Stewart 116–17
cultural geography 4
Cuzco well, attack on 189, 191–92, 195–96
Daiquirí 278
landing of US troops at 208, 208–09
Davenport, Benjamin Rush, Anglo-Saxons, Onward! A Romance for the Future 221
Davis, Richard Harding 123–25, 132, 171, 185, 213, 261
at El Aserradero 206–07
and the Clemencia Arango story 127–28
The Cuban and Porto Rican Campaigns 204–05
on the Cuban troops 209
Real Soldiers of Fortune 139
and Roosevelt 205–06, 208
and San Juan Hills fighting 209–10
Soldiers of Fortune 125, 168
and Henry Clay 214
and mercenaries 142
racial dimension of 156
‘Robert Clay’ 133–38, 141–42, 218–19
and romance and marriage 157–60
and US interests in Cuba 123, 128–33, 155, 159, 279
Three Gringos in Venezuela and Central America 125, 139, 156
and the US landing at Siboney 208–09
de Castro, Vicente Antonio 43
D'Este, Carlo 139–41
de Góngora, Luis 32
de la Concepción Valdés, Gabriel 78
de la Luz y Caballero, José 40
de la Riva, Juan Pérez 10
de la Sagra, Ramón 41
de la Torriente Brau, Pablo 282, 283–85, 290, 312
‘Álgebra y política’ [Algebra and politics] 285
‘I Escaped from Cuba’ 300
Oriente as ‘another country’ 9, 285–86
(p.444) ‘Realengo 18’ 285–94
discussion of opening section 285–86
journey to 285–87
meeting with Lino Álvarez 294–96
writes his conclusions 295–96
de la Torriente y Peraza, Cosme 165, 252, 253, 322
de las Cabezas Altamirano, Friar Juan (Bishop of Cuba) 21, 23–24
de Mendive, Rafael María 78
de Olivares, José 116
de Palma y Romay, Ramón, ‘Matanzas y Yumuri’ 41
De Pauw, Cornelius 74
de Paz, Ibrahim 273
de Quesada y Miranda, Gonzalo 346–47
de Torres, Luis 390
de Treviño, Juan 24
de Valdés, Don Pedro 23–24
Decker, Karl (Charles Duval) 142–44, 219
del Monte, Domingo 40–41, 78
Del Real, Patricio 97–98
del Rosario, Marcos 108
Delargy, Hugh 367–68
La Demajagua 17, 19, 58, 65, 67
and Céspedes' bell 71–72, 72
Dent, Louis A.
career of 255–57
and Roberts 249, 254–55, 256
and Rowan 243–47, 257
DePalma, Anthony 333, 336
Devoy, John 47
Dewey, George 172
Dobbs, Michael 371
Dodd, William J. 336
domestic novels 156–57
Dunne, Finley Peter, review of The Rough Riders 211
Eastland, James O. 335–36
Echeverría, José Antonio 20–21, 41, 325
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 369
Ekman, Erik, ascents of Pico Turquino 344–45
Elliott, George F. 191
enclaves 373–77, 382, 389, 394
‘English-speaking’ world 177–78, 221–22
Escalante Beatón, Aníbal 252, 253, 315–16
Escobar, Froilán 111, 115, 165
Martí a flor de labios 110–14
Escuadras de Guantánamo 107
Estrada Palma, Tomás 58, 244, 250–52, 273–74, 275
‘estuary of the Americas, the’ 2
European imperialism 14
exile and return 79–83, 101–02, 267–68
‘extraordinary rendition’ 392–94 see also US Naval Station at Guantánamo Bay
Fair Play for Cuba Committee 351
Fanon, Frantz 375, 392
The Wretched of the Earth 373
FBI 335
Fenian movement 47, 62, 142, 223
Fernández, Joseíto 293
Fernández Barrot, Eugenio Leopoldo 252, 253, 273
Fernández Retamar, Roberto 92
A Few Good Men (film) 381
fidelistas 316, 366
filibusters 138–39, 141, 147, 152, 167
Fish, Hamilton 43
Fishermans Point, Guantánamo Bay 7
Fiske, John 90–91, 172
Fleming, Ian, Dr No 370
Flint, Grover 199
foreign traders [corsarios] 22–23
(p.445) Fornaris, José 78, 84, 86, 87–88
Cantos del siboney 85–87
Poesías 87
Fornaris, José, and Joaquín Lorenzo Lucas, Cuba poética 86
Forsyth, James W. 96
Fox, Jr, John 185, 214
Crittenden 124, 171, 214–19
Harper's Weekly 218
Franqui, Carlos, interview with Castro 349–50
Free Museum of Science and Art, University of Pennsylvania 116
Freemasonry 43, 162
futuristic fiction 171, 219–25
García, Guillermo 358
García del Pino, César 33
García Íñiguez, Calixto 17, 226–27, 357
a character in The Single Star (Roberts) 261–65
and Cuban co-operation with US forces 201–02, 270–76
and Cuban independence 278
exclusion from victory celebrations 203–04
meeting with Maceo in Kingston, Jamaica 268
meeting with O'Kelly 53–54
meeting with Rowan 249–54
meeting with Sampson and Shafter 181, 206–07
on US intervention 250
García Menocal, Mario 106
García Velez, Carlos 252, 253
García Vieta, Gonzalo 186
Gardner, Arthur 328–29, 335–36
Garzón, Victoriano 279
Gellhorn, Martha 325
Geographical Expedition of Oriente 345
geography 1, 4–10
and the Cuban Revolution 314–20, 337–40
literary 6–7, 15
Oriente, map of 5
sea routes 266–69
Giron, Gilberto 21, 26, 320
Glissant, Edouard 2
Gómez, Máximo 226, 357
and Cuba's ‘ancient heroes’ 88
interview with Scovel 198–200
meeting with O'Kelly 54
mentioned in The Single Star (Roberts) 263
and the Ten Years War (1868–1878) 17, 43, 64, 108, 315–16
and US invasion plans 273–76
Gómez de Avellaneda, Gertrudis 78
Gómez García, Raúl 66
González Echeverría, Roberto 25, 31
Graham, George Edward 207–08
Gran Oriente de Cuba y las Antillas 43
Granma, landing of 26, 320–21, 321
Grant, Ulysses S. 71
Grau San Martín, Ramón 71–72, 280, 346
Greene, Graham 314, 361
in Cuba 365–71
employed by the British Secret Service 362
Our Man in Havana 360–65
and the British Secret Service 361–65, 370
and missiles 370–71
and spy novels 370
and violence in Santiago 363–64
Gregory, Derek 382
Griffiths, George, The Angel of the Revolution 221
‘guajira guantanamera’ 293
guajiros [peasants or farmers] 292–93
(p.446) Guantánamo (city) 372
Guantánamo (region) 293
Guantánamo Bay 184, 187, 278, 372, 375
first war action at 185–89
Fishermans Point 7
Guerra, Eutimio 334
Guevara, Che 321, 337, 352, 357
Guiteras, Antonio, Joven Cuba organisation 327–28
Guiteras, Pedro José, Historia de la isla de Cuba 84
Haiti 269
‘half-breed’ 155, 156 see also Cuban Indians
Harrington, Mark 117–19
Cuba Before Columbus 118
Hart, Armando 366
Hart Phillips, Ruby 323, 328–29
Hatuey 18, 31
Havana 5, 6–7, 13, 22, 268–69, 281
and Bayamo 35
bombing and fighting in 300–301, 302
contrasted to Pico Turquino 354
and Oriente 7, 358–60
Presidential Palace 354
Hawthorne, Julian
on ‘America’ 183–84
introduction to The Story of Evangelina Cisneros 144–46
Hay, John 172
Hearst, William Randolph 142
Hegel, G.W.F. 75
Helper, Hinton Rowan, The Impending Crisis 163
Hemingway, Ernest 297, 298, 304, 325–26
Henderson, A. Boyd 44
Herbst, Josephine Frey 282, 297–99
articles on Cuba 300
‘Cuba on the Barricades’ 300
The Executioner Waits 297, 298
and husband, John Hermann 297–99, 303
interviewing in Havana 298–99, 303
meeting with Álvarez 303, 305, 331
New Green World 298
‘A Passport from Realengo 18’ 304–07
Pity is Not Enough 297
in Realengo 18: 299–300
on the realenguistas 288
Rope of Gold 297, 307–11
Lino Álvarez as a character in 309–10
and Realengo 18: 308–10
‘The Soviet in Cuba’ 301–04
Heredia, José María 1–2, 41, 78, 79–83
‘Himno del desterrado’ [The exile's hymn] 80
‘Niágara’ 82
Hernández, Carlos 237, 253
Hernández, Miguel, ‘Elegía segunda’ [Second Elegy] 284
Herrezuelo, Gil 302–03
Heye, George (Heye Foundation) 117, 118
Hicks, David 384
Hippisley, Henry Nelson 60–61
historical novels 164
history, literary 4, 13–14
Hoffmann, Wendell 348–54
Holcombe Pickens, Lucy, The Free Flag of Cuba 215–16
Holland, John P. 223–24
hombres de confianza [men of trust] 33
Hubbard, Elbert
‘A Message to García’ 227–33, 237–39, 253
distribution of 229–33
relevance to employees 228–30
Humboldt, Alexander von 338
and tropical America 76–77
Hume, David, ‘On National Characters’ 75
(p.447) iguanas 395
la intemperie insular [insular inclemency] 29–30, 105–06, 111
Isabel I (of Castile) 99
Jamaica
gun-running to Cuba 268
Jamaica-Cuba axis 267–69
Myrtle Bank Hotel, Kingston 243
Rowan in 242–49
Jamaica Progressive League 260
Jean, Yolanda 381
Jefferson, Thomas, Notes on Virginia 77
Jerome, Jennie (Lady Randolph Spencer Churchill) 194
Jesuits 77
Jiguaní 55
Jones, Anne Goodwyn 168
Jones County, Mississippi, and the Civil War 164
journalists 15, 196
acting as spies 199–200
publishing books on the war 204–05
and the Spanish-American war 185–89
Juraguá Iron Company 130–31, 132, 261, 264, 278–79
black workers' attack on Spanish garrison 279
jutías 395–97, 396
Kaplan, Amy 194
Karpinski, Janis 392
Kennan, George 272
Kennedy, Robert, and Guantánamo Bay Naval Station 371
King, Clarence 172
Kipling, Rudyard, ‘The White Man's Burden’ 198
Kirkpatrick, Dave 279
Knight, Davis 164
Knight, Newton 164
Kurnaz, Murnat, animals and birds in the camps 394–95
Laborde, Alfredo 186, 190
Langer, Elinor 299–300
‘large policy’ 171–75 see also manifest destiny
Las Casas, Bartolomé de, Historia de Indias 84–85
Lauten, William 60
Lay Buchereau, Octavio 244–45, 248, 253, 255–56
Leal Spengler, Eusebio 273–74
Lefebvre, Henri 377
Leslie's Weekly 207
Lewis, Gordon 38, 92–93
Lezama Lima, José 78
Antología de la poesía cubana 26
Paradiso 13
literary geography 6–7, 15
literary history 4, 13–14
Livingstone, David 44
Llerena, Mario, and Matthews's articles 329–30
Lloyd, Selwyn 367–68, 370
Lockwood, Lee 358
Lodge, Henry Cabot 172, 180
logging industry in Mississippi 160–61, 163
Long, John D. 175, 178–80
López, Narciso 67, 138, 215–16
Luaces, Joaquín Lorenzo 78
Lubián y Arias, Rafael, survey of Martí's route 109–10
Maceo, Antonio 1–2, 17, 43, 64, 269, 357
as a character in Mingo Dabney (Street) 165, 167–69
in Jamaica 268
Machado, Gerardo 280
Madden, Richard Robert 42
Madera, Jilma 347
Mahan, Alfred Thayer 172, 174, 182
Maine, monument to 232
man of trust [hombre de confianza] 277–78
Mañach, Jorge 317–18
manifest destiny 90–91, 171–75
(p.448) Manso de Contreras, Francisco 24
Manzano, Juan Francisco 41, 42
Marquetti, Cheo, ‘Oriente’ (song) 1–2, 342
Márquez, Juan Manuel 320–21
Marrero-Fente, Raúl 34
Marshall, Edward 213
Martí, José 64, 73–74, 77, 79, 294, 357
on ‘America’ 90
and American Indian issues 94–97, 119
and Americanism 92–97
betrayal and death of 100, 115
centenary of his birth 346–47
Chac-Mol (drawing of Martí as) 96
Chac-Mol (unfinished play) 119
as a character in Tomorrow We Reap (Street) 162–63
and the Cuban war of independence (1895–1898) 66
encounter with an Indian woman 102–03, 113, 114, 116, 152
Escenas norteamericanas 89
in Jamaica 268
journey across Oriente 100–106
memories of 110–14
monuments to 108–09, 109, 115
on top of Pico Turquino 347, 351, 353
and the New York Herald 114–15
‘Nuestra América’ 29, 34, 89–90, 92–97
and the Partido Revolucionario Cubano 268–69
and Pedro Pérez 105–08, 121
and place 97–100
return to Cuba 347–48
route out of Cuba 279
La ruta de José Martí en la Guerra del 95 108–10
stone marker at his tomb 109
Versos Sencillos [Simple Verses] 98–100
war diary 73–74, 100–108, 110
Martínez Villena, Rubén 283
Masó, Bartolomé 54, 273
Matthews, Herbert 298, 314, 323–30, 334–35
articles on Castro 326–30, 332–34, 336
biography of Castro 334
‘Cuban Rebel Is Visited in Hideout’ 326–27
The Cuban Story 332
interview with Castro 325, 331–32, 334
investigated by FBI and Eastland 335–36
journey to the Sierra Maestra 324–25
photographed with Fidel Castro 330
report in the New York Times 326
Matthews, Nancie 324
McCready, Ernest 186, 188–89
McKinley, William 178–80, 271–72
Mendoza, Luis G. 318
mercenaries 139, 142 see also filibusters
Mesa, Liliam 324
Mesoamerican civilisations 95 see also American Indians
‘message to García’ 227–33
significance of 269–78
Milanés, José Jacinto 41, 78
Miles, Nelson
and Rowan 231–32, 237–38
and Cuban participation 270–71
and US administration politics 271–72
Millen, Francis F. 61–62, 139
Miller, Tom 377, 386
inside the US Naval Station at Guantánamo Bay 378–79
tour of area outside the US Naval Station at Guantánamo Bay 379–80
Trading with the Enemy: A Yankee Travels Through Castro's Cuba 378–81
mining in Cuba 128–33, 155, 159, 261, 264, 278–80
(p.449) Miranda y de la Rúa, Luis Rodolfo 252, 259–60
miscegenation 155, 164
modernismo 92
modernity 89, 136–37
Moncada, Guillermón 49
Moncada barracks 66, 312
attack on 348
Monguito, aka Luis Castillo (Ramón Nicolau) 287–88
Monroe Doctrine 173–74
montuno [refrain] 8
montunos [mountain men] 292–93
monuments 9, 69–70
to Céspedes 19–20
to the Maine 232
to Martí 108–09, 109, 115
on Pico Turquino 347, 351, 353
to Matthews 332
to Rowan 232, 251, 259
Moore, Robin 288
Morell de Santa Cruz, Pedro Agustín, Historia de la isla y catedral de Cuba 20
Moreno, Antonio 347
Morillas, Pedro José 41
Morris, Edmund 171–72
Museum of the American Indian, New York 117
Museum of the Revolution, Havana 354
museums 19, 116–20, 354
music 1–2, 8, 31, 293, 342
Myrtle Bank Hotel, Kingston 243
naguas [loincloths] 28–29
Nápoles Fajardo, Juan Cristóbal 78
Navarro Luna, Manuel 316
‘La Sierra Maestra en la historia de Cuba’ [The Sierra Maestra in the history of Cuba] 337–38
‘negro question’, the 222–23
new imperialism 137–38
The New Masses 300–301
the new world 54, 75–76
New York Herald 44–45
and O'Kelly 57, 59–60
New York Journal 127–28, 142–44
New York Times
in Havana 323
Matthews's articles on Castro 326–30
New York World 186
Nicholl, Charles 112
Norris, Frank 185, 203–04
Noyes, John 374
nuestra América 89–90, 94
Núñez de Toledo, Marcos 24
Núñez Jiménez, Antonio 119, 338, 339
ascents of Pico Turquino 342–46, 346, 355–57
‘Así es la Sierra Maestra’ [This is the Sierra Maestra] 313–14, 319–20
‘By canoe from the Amazon to the Caribbean’ (expedition) 338
Cuba, con la mochila al hombro [Cuba, with a knapsack on his back] 339–40
‘En la cima del Pico Turquino’ [On Top of Pico Turquino] 342–43
‘En marcha con las brigadas estudiantiles hacia el pico Turquino’ [With the student brigades to Pico Turquino] 355–57
‘En el techo de Cuba’ [On the roof of Cuba] 345
Geografía de Cuba 317–20, 337
banning of 317–18
El Pico Turquino 342
‘La Sierra Maestra en la historia de Cuba’ [The Sierra Maestra in the history of Cuba] 314–20
banning of 316, 319–20
Nyström, Johan 345
(p.450) Ober, Frederick Albion 124, 149, 165, 360
Camps in the Caribbees 116, 148
and Cuban Indians 149–56
In the Wake of Columbus 112, 148–49
Special Commissioner for the Chicago Columbian Exposition 148
travelling and writing career 147–48
Under the Cuban Flag 124, 147–48, 165
Odell, Samuel W., The Last War, or The Triumph of the English Tongue 221–22
Odets, Clifford 300
O'Kelly, James J. 18, 44–45, 47–48, 52–53, 57, 223
in Cuba 48–49
looking for Céspedes 49–55
The Mambi-Land 45–47, 55, 61, 65, 68, 286
meeting with Calixto García 53–54
meeting with Céspedes 53, 55–58, 331
meeting with insurgents 49–50
prisoner in Cuba 59–64
Spain, escape from 63–64
Olney, Richard 126–27
on the acquisition of Cuba 183
oriental encounters 14
oriental places 7–8
Ortiz, Fernando 8, 63, 119
Historia de arqueología indocubana 118
Introduction to Guiteras's Historia de la isla de Cuba 84
Introduction to O'Kelly's The Mambi-Land 68
Ostend Manifesto (1854) 12
Our Man in Havana (film) 370 see also Greene, Graham
Pacheco, Antonio 115
Padura, Leonardo 80
Pagden, Anthony 36
Paine, Ralph 186, 189
País, Frank 320, 329, 365
palm tree, the 82, 99
Pan de Matanzas (mountain) 80, 82
Panchito (Francisco Ramírez Rojas) 121–22
paradise trope 389–91
Partido Revolucionario Cubano (PRC) 79, 163, 268–69
Payen, Nikòl 381
Pazos, Javier 324–25
Pearson, C. Arthur 221
peasants 101, 106, 192, 281, 292–93, 295, 303 see also Realengo 18; realengos
Pennsylvania Steel Company 129–30
Pérez, Crescencio 322
Pérez, Faustino 324
Pérez, Santiago 379
Pérez de Acevedo, Roberto 279
Pérez family 107
Pérez Macías, José Francisco 244–45
Pérez y Céspedes, Miguel 105, 107
Pérez y Pérez, Pedro Agustín (Periquito Pérez) 105–08, 186
Philippines 181
The Philistine 227
Pi y Margall, Francisco 63–64
Pichardo Moya, Felipe
Los indios de Cuba en sus tiempos históricos 119
study of the Espejo de Paciencia [Paragon of Patience] 25
Pico Turquino 7, 16, 235–36, 340–46, 341
bust of Martí placed on 347, 351
Castro's expedition to 355–57
contrasted to Havana 354
documentary filmed on 348–54
interviews with Castro on 325, 331–32, 334
politicisation of 345–46
writings left at the top 343–46
Pineda Reyes, José 102, 113
(p.451) Pineda Rodríguez, Francisco, memories of Martí 113–14
pirates 22–25
place 7–8, 13–14, 97–100, 372–75
deplacialization 374–75
Plantation America 2
plantations 5, 9, 38–40, 375 see also sugar
Platt Amendment 182
Playa Girón (Bay of Pigs) 26
Playitas de Cajobabo 102
‘El Poeta Misterioso’ 296
Portell Vilá, Herminio 68
ports in Cuba 182–83
Post, Charles Johnson, on Cuban troops 213–14
prostitution 266, 379
and providing arms to the Cubans 351
Puerto Príncipe 35, 36, 43
Puerto Rico 17, 181, 248, 271
Pulitzer, Joseph 186
Putnam, Frederick 154
Quint, David 29
‘race war’ [la guerra de razas] in Oriente 280
Ramírez Rojas, Francisco (Panchito) 121–22
Ramos, Gregorio 33, 35
Ramsden, Frederick W. 60–62, 344
Ramsey, Marathon Montrose 240–41
Realengo 18: 290–92, 302–03, 312, 319
conflicts over land 281–83, 289–90
Land or Blood demonstration in Guantánamo 291
maps drawn of 305, 306
montunos [mountain men] of 292–93
realengos 282–83, 294
‘Rebels of the Sierra Maestra: The Story of Cuba's Jungle Fighters’ (CBS documentary) 350–54
reconcentración 375
regionalism 359
Remington, Frederic 127, 128, 206
The Bronco Buster 210
‘The Charge of the Rough Riders’ 211
‘The Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill’ 210
on Cubans 210–11
on Daiquirí 209
illustrations for Roosevelt 210
‘render’, animal connotations of 392–94
rescate (ransom) 22, 25
resistance, discourse of 40–42
Revista Bimestre Cubana 40
revolutionary tradition of Oriente 7, 15
Rivero de la Calle, Manuel 119
Roberts, Elmer 256
and Dent 254–55, 256
and Rowan 243–47
story about Rowan's mission 247–49
Roberts, W. Adolphe 260
on Cuban preparations for a US landing 263–64
The Single Star 124, 206, 260–66, 278
Calixto García as a character in 261–65
and Cuban sea routes 266–68
portrayal of the Cuban army 264
Roosevelt as a character in 262–64
Rowan as a character in 263
sexual openness of 265–66
and spying 266
Robles, Francisco 21
Rodó, José Enrique, Ariel 92
Rodríguez y Velázquez, Gregoria (Goya) 102, 113, 114, 116, 152
(p.452) Roosevelt, Theodore 126, 183, 205–06, 271
and Americanism 93–94
as a character in Crittenden (Fox) 218
as a character in The Single Star (Roberts) 262–63, 264
‘Davis and the Rough Riders’ 206
and the ‘large policy’ 171–75
picture of Cuba 212–13
Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail 210
and the Rough Riders 181, 208, 209–10
The Rough Riders 211–13
‘The Rough Riders’ (essay) 210
‘The Spread of the English-Speaking Peoples’ 177
‘True Americanism’ 93
and war with Spain 178, 180, 198
The Winning of the West 90
Root, Elihu 182–83
Rough Riders 181, 208, 209–10, 213
Rowan, Andrew Summers 230, 232–33, 263
accounts of his journey to Cuba 233–39
background and career of 231–32, 239–42, 257–58
brief from Wagner 274
bust in Havana 259
with Calixto García 227–28, 237, 249–54, 251, 272–73, 331
language used at meeting 276
a confidence man 278
and Dent 243–47
and Elmer Roberts 243–47, 249
How I Carried the Message to García 231
in Jamaica 242–49
mentioned in The Single Star (Roberts) 263
‘My mission and My Message to García’ (unpublished film-script) 250
plaque on Longoria house in Bayamo 233
route through Cuba 238 see also Hubbard, Elbert, ‘A Message to García’
Rowan, Andrew Summers, and Marathon Montrose Ramsey, The Island of Cuba: A Descriptive and Historical Account of the ‘Great Antilla’ 240–41
Saar, Erik 384–85, 397
background and career 386
and prisoners' stories 387
at the US Naval Station at Guantánamo Bay 385–91
view of Cuba 389, 390
Sabio, Gervacio 235–36
Saco, José Antonio 40–41, 42, 78, 84
Salazar, Eduardo 253
Salvador 26–27, 30–31
Sampson, William T. 227
San Juan Hills 209–10
San Juan Hill (Kettle Hill) 210, 212
Sánchez, Celia 314, 347, 348, 350
Sánchez Liveira, Manuel 347
Sanguily, Manuel 54
Santa Coloma, Boris Luís, tortured and murdered 366
Santa Ifigenia cemetery 262
Santamaría, Haydée 350, 366
Santiago de Cuba 130–31
announced as the new capital 359
neglect of 319
violence and murders in 365–66 see also the Virginius incident
Sarabia, Nydia 366, 379
Sartre, Jean-Paul 392–93
Schurz, Carl 180
scientific romances 219–25
US versions of 221–25
Scovel, Harry (Sylvester) 185, 198–204
on Cuban insurgents 201
fight with Shafter 203
(p.453) on fighting around El Caney 201–02
journalist and spy 200–202
and Máximo Gómez 275–76
‘Perilous Adventure in Sight of Spanish Guns’ 200
‘Seargeants' Revolt’ 280
Sellén, Francisco 79
September Revolution in Spain 62–64
Shafter, William Rufus 227
Shephard, A. St John, on Cubans 197
siboneyismo 83–88
Sierra del Cristal 150
Sierra Maestra 8, 16
history of 314–20
inhabitants of 313–14 see also Pico Turquino; realengos
Siré, Wilfredo 288
slavery 39–40, 375
abolition of 63, 68–69
Céspedes' view on 43
and Civil War 163
rebellions against 69
resistance to 42
Smith, Earl E.T. 329, 336
Smithsonian Institution 148
smuggling 22–25, 34–35, 167
Sociedad Espeleológica de Cuba [Speleological Society of Cuba] 340, 345–46
‘soldiers of fortune’ 138–42 see also Davis, Richard Harding
Soldiers of Fortune (film) 131–32, 132 see also Davis, Richard Harding
son (Cuba's national musical form) 8, 293
Sorkin, Aaron, A Few Good Men (film) 381
Soviet Union 306–07
‘space’ 98
Spanish-American Iron Company 278–80
Spanish-American War 171, 174–75, 178–80, 204–10
histories of 258–60
and newspaper correspondents 185–89
and scientific romance 221
the US invasion of Cuba 180–85, 248, 272–73, 331
Stafford Smith, Clive 395
Stanley, Henry Morton 44
Stead, W.T., The Americanisation of the World 177
Stratemeyer, Edward 171, 219–21, 225, 360
Estella, the Little Cuban Rebel 220
Under Dewey at Manila 220
When Santiago Fell, or the War Adventures of Two Chums 220
The Young Naval Captain 223–25
Stratfor report on Cuba 12–13
Street, James Howell 160–64
By Valour and Arms 161
Mingo Dabney 124, 160–62, 163, 165–70, 166
Oh Promised Land 161
Tap Roots 161–62, 163–64
Tomorrow We Reap 161–63
and Martí 162–63
Strong, Josiah 172
Our Country 91
Suarez de Poaga, Melchor 23
Suárez y Romero, Anselmo 41
submarines 223–25
sugar 8–9, 39–40, 319
companies 281–83, 302, 308, 309–11
metadiscourse of 40–42
plantations 375
Swanger, Julia 292–93
Swedish colony in Cuba 345
Taber, Robert 348–54
Taft, William H. 172
(p.454) Tanco, Felix 41
Ten Years' War (1868–1878) 17, 43, 64, 67, 107–08, 315–16
testimonio 121
Thermopylae 54, 352–54
Thomas, Augustus 128, 132
Thomas y Thomas, Enrique 190–91, 315–16
diary of 195–96
tobacco production 9
torpedoes 225
tourists to the Caribbean 388–91
Tracy, Louis, The Final War 221
transculturation 121
translatio imperii 75–76
transplantation 75–76
Trask, David F. 259
travel writing 13–14
Treaty of Paris 181
tropics, the 74–77
Tuerbe Tolón, Miguel 78
‘Uncle Sam's New Children’ (cartoon) 198
Ureta, Juan Villaverde 24–25
Uris, Leon, Topaz 370
Urraca, Beatriz 158
US Army 191–92, 195–96, 204, 278
invasion of Cuba 180–85, 248, 272–73, 331
landing at Daiquirí 208, 209
US Army Military History Institute, accounts of the Spanish-American War 205
US business in Cuba 146–47, 279, 300–301 see also mining; sugar
US Civil War 163–64
novels of 161, 164
US Embassy 327–28
US foreign bases 382
US imperialism 174–75, 296
US Indians 95–97, 153–54, 375
US iron companies 279
US lease of Guantánamo Bay 372–73, 378
US Naval Station at Guantánamo Bay 5, 7, 16, 319, 350, 371–72, 378–79
as a ‘black hole’ 382–85
Camp Delta 382, 383–84, 385
Camp X-Ray 381–82, 384, 384
as colonial space 373–77, 382
and the Cuban environment 383–84, 394–97
Cuban workers in 375–76, 377, 379
and ‘hazing’ 380–81
a ‘non-place’ 382–83
as ‘paradise’ 391
prisoners in
and Behavioral Science Consultation Teams 391
‘enemy combatants’ 381–82
and local animals 394–97
photographs of 381–82
treatment of 386–88, 391, 392–94
refugees in 381
relationship with Cuba 375–81, 383–84, 386, 394
torture and illegal detention at 373
US personnel at 384–88
writing emerging from 382–83
US steel industry 146–47
US volunteers with Castro 350–52
USA 126–27, 146, 147, 174–75, 183–85
and Britain 125–26
and the Caribbean 262, 268
and Cuba 10–13, 145–46, 280
ambitions for 11–13, 43, 68, 70–71, 222, 264–65
arms sales to 367, 379
intervention in 152
mining in 128–33, 155
US-backed invasion of 369
USS Holland 224
USS Maine 176, 178–79, 199
explosion in Havana harbour 147
(p.455) Vanderbilt, Cornelius 138–39
Varela, Felix 67
Vega del Jobo 102, 113
Venegas Delgado, Hernán 9–10
Venezuela 126–27, 173, 223
Villaverde, Cirilo 41
Cecilia Valdés 13
Vilorio 371
Virginius incident 141, 165, 167, 176, 215
Vitier, Cintio 78, 79, 83, 105, 110
Introduction to Escobar's Martí a flor de labios 110–11
Lo cubano en la poesía 26–30
Wagner, Arthur L. 241–42
The Service of Security and Information 242
Walcott, Derek, Omeros 31
Walker, William 138–39
‘Wall Street and Cuba’ cartoon 301
Whitney, Caspar 206
wig-wagging 191–94
Wilson, Herminio, ‘guajira guantanamera’ 293
Windward Passage 36
map of 37
Wood, Leonard 172
Woodward, Franc 199
Wounded Knee massacre 96–97, 153
Wright, Irene 22, 133, 135
Yara 18, 19
attacked by Céspedes 17
Yee, James
background and career 386
under surveillance and arrested 388
at the US Naval Station at Guantánamo Bay 385–91
view of Cuba 390–91
Zambrana, Antonio 57
Zenea, Juan Clemente 78
zunzúns 395 (p.456) (p.457) (p.458) (p.459) (p.460)