The period from Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene to John Milton's Paradise Lost highlights a centuries-long argument on the moral implications of travel and exploration. Europe's divided mind over the ethics of voyaging underlies the divided mind of the English Renaissance writers in employing the metaphor of the voyage. The mind's division between faith in the voyage and distrust of it is most evident in Christopher Marlowe's plays. Francis Bacon is the most enthusiastic and confident user of the metaphor of the voyage as a proper image for the proper life. William Shakespeare, in Macbeth, suggests that navigation is a fundamental image of life.
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