The tumultuous nineteenth century brought Parisian led regime change in 1830, 1848 and in many respects 1870. Although Napoleon III and Haussmann had hoped their Paris works would tame the capital city as they constructed uniform boulevards and transformed the crowded medieval centre into a bourgeois space. Throughout the twentieth century, the movement of people and goods throughout the Paris region remained a challenge and official maps showed how to address that issue. The German occupation during World War II effectively ended any hope of Prost’s 1934 plan to come to fruition. However, the damages afflicted on the city during combat allowed leaders to refocus their attention on the city. The pre-war work done by the Service géographique, Jaussely, and Prost allow future urban officials, such as Lopez and Bernard Lafay, to address problems such as increased traffic, parking, housing shortages, decentralization, and increased sprawl. The end of the war shifted national priorities away from the capital but by the 1950s, economic growth meant that urban planners needed to focus yet again on ameliorating development in greater Paris.
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