Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Begging, Charity and Religion in Pre-Famine Ireland$

Ciarán McCabe

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9781786941572

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.3828/liverpool/9781786941572.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM LIVERPOOL SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.liverpool.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Liverpool University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in LSO for personal use.date: 27 June 2022

(p.261) Bibliography

(p.261) Bibliography

Source:
Begging, Charity and Religion in Pre-Famine Ireland
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press

Primary Sources

Manuscript Material

Republic of Ireland

Abbey Presbyterian Church, Dublin

Mary’s Abbey congregation records, books no. 9, 13, 14 and 18

Dublin Diocesan Archives

Daniel Murray papers (30/7–34/6)

John Hamilton papers (35/1–37/4)

Friends Historical Library, Dublin

Cork monthly meeting records (MM VIII)

Dublin monthly meeting records (MM II)

Waterford monthly meeting records (MM XI)

National Archives of Ireland, Dublin

Australian Transportation Database

Chief Secretary’s Office Official Papers

Chief Secretary’s Office Registered Papers

Commissioners of National Education papers

Criminal Index Files

Irish Prison Records (accessed through www.findmypast.ie )

Miscellaneous (Letter book of Joseph Burke (M 2591))

State of the Country papers

National Library of Ireland, Dublin

Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in Dublin papers (MSS 32,599/1–32,616)

Report on the state of the poor in Waterford city and on the charitable institutions of that city, 5 Apr. 1834 (MS 3,288)

(p.262) Presentation Convent, George’s Hill Archive, Dublin

‘Rules and constitutions of the Religious Congregation of the Charitable Instruction established in the Convent of the Presentation of our Blessed Lady in Cork agreeable to the bull of His Present Holiness Pope Pius VI’, [c.1809] (GHAD/C/5)

‘Short sketches of the lives of some of the nuns who entered the community from 1790 to 1870’, [c.early twentieth century] (GHAD/P/16)

Teresa Mulally to Archbishop John Thomas Troy, [c.1802] (GHAD/FD/146)

Religious Sisters of Charity Archive, Caritas, Sandymount, Dublin

Diary of Mother Catherine, 2 June 1812–29 Aug. 1825 (RSCG/1/C/15)

‘Dublin cause for the beatification and canonization of the servant of God Mary Aikenhead foundress of the Sisters of Charity (1787–1858). Positio on the life, the witness and the fame of sanctity of the servant of God’ (2 vols, 1994)

Representative Church Body Library, Dublin

Vestry Minute Books (arranged by County)

Cork

St Finbar’s parish, vestry minute book, 1764–1837 (P 497.5.1)

St Paul’s parish, vestry minute book, 1796–1926 (P 349.5.1)

St Peter’s parish, vestry minute book, 1752–1846 (P 342.5.1)

Dublin

St Andrew’s parish, vestry minute book, 1757–1817 (P 59.5.1)

St Andrew’s parish, vestry minute book, 1819–47 (P 59.5.2)

St Bride’s parish vestry minute book, 1826–85 (P 327.3.3)

St Catherine’s parish, vestry minute book, 1785–1815 (P 117.5.5)

St Catherine’s parish, vestry minute book, 1816–35 (P 117.5.7)

St Mary’s parish, vestry minute book, 1788–1819 (P 277.7.4)

St Michan’s parish, vestry minute book, 1800–28 (P 276.5.4)

St Michan’s parish, vestry minute book, 1828–1922 (P 276.5.5)

St Thomas’s parish, vestry minute book, 1823–41 (P 80.5.2)

St Werburgh’s parish, vestry minute book, 1780–1859 (P 326.5.2)

Galway

St Nicholas’s parish, vestry minute book, 1805–1909 (P 519.5.1)

Kildare

Naas parish, vestry minute book, 1805–85 (P 487.5.1)

Kilkenny

St Canice’s parish, vestry minute book, 1775–1824 (P 622.5.1)

St Mary’s parish, vestry minute book, 1792–1872 (P 792.5.2)

Louth

St Peter’s parish, vestry minute book, 1748–1803 (P 854.5.1)

Roscommon

Bumlin parish vestry minute book, 1811–70 (P 737.5.1) (p.263)

Westmeath

Mullingar parish, vestry minute book, 1806–1983 (P 336.5.1)

Thurles Library

Thurles Poor Law Union records (BG151)

Northern Ireland

Methodist Historical Society of Ireland Archives, Belfast

Strangers’ Friend Society register of relief recipients, 1794–9 (IrBe.MS.OS42.02)

Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (arranged by archival reference number)

Belfast Poor Law Union Board of Guardians papers (BG/7)

Church of Ireland records (CR1)

Presbyterian Church records (CR3)

Irish Evangelical Society papers (CR7/2)

Records of the Religious Society of Friends in Ulster (CR8)

Abercorn papers (D623)

Caledon papers (D847/5)

Fintona papers (D1048)

Cunningham and Clarke papers (D1108)

J.B. Hamilton papers (D1518)

Calwell papers (D3784)

Maxwell Given papers (D4164)

Dromore Diocesan papers (DIORC/3)

Lisburn (Blaris) parish records (MIC1/4)

Ardtrea parish records (MIC1/319/1)

Rosemary Street, Belfast, Presbyterian Church papers (MIC1P/7)

Ordnance Survey memoirs (MIC6C)

Census return and testamentary documents (T715)

Groves manuscripts (T808)

Cooke and Chalmers papers (copies) (T3307)

Presbyterian Historical Society of Ireland Archive, Belfast

Presbyterian Church Records

Aghadowey Presbyterian Church kirk session minute book, 1702–65 (no reference number)

Carnmoney Presbyterian Church kirk session poor list, 1718–1878 (MIC/1P/37/6; microfilm)

Great Britain

British Library, London

Liverpool papers (Add. MS 38368)

London Mendicity Society minute book, 1818–24 (Add. MS 50136)

Place papers (Add. MS 35145)

(p.264) Linnean Society Archives, London

James Edward Smith papers (GB-110/JES), accessed online at http://linnean-online.org/62487/

National Records of Scotland, Edinburgh

Dundas family (Viscounts Melville) papers (GD51)

Dukes of Buccleuch papers (GD224)

The National Archives, Kew

Home Office Correspondence, HO 44

Printed Material

Modern Editions of Manuscript Material

Agnew, Jean (ed.), The Drennan-McTier letters, 1776–1819 (IMC, 3 vols, Dublin, 1999).

Brown, William (ed.), Yorkshire Deeds, Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Series (10 vols, n.p., 1922).

Crawford, W.H. and B. Trainor (eds), Aspects of Irish social history, 1750–1800 (Belfast, 1969).

Day, Angélique and Patrick McWilliams (eds), Ordnance Survey memoirs of Ireland (40 vols, Belfast, 1990–8).

Ellis, Eilish and P. Beryl Eustace (eds), Registry of deeds, Dublin: abstracts of wills, vol. 3, 1785–1832 (IMC, Dublin, 1984).

Fleming, David and John Logan (eds), Pauper Limerick: the register of the Limerick House of Industry 1774–1793 (IMC, Dublin, 2011).

Gillespie, Raymond (ed.), The vestry records of the parish of St John the Evangelist, Dublin, 1595–1658 (Dublin, 2002).

—— The vestry records of the parishes of St Catherine and St James, Dublin, 1657–1692 (Dublin, 2004).

Gillespie, Raymond and Alison O’Keeffe (eds), Register of the parish of Shankill, Belfast, 1745–1761 (Dublin, 2006).

Letters of Mary Aikenhead (Dublin, 1914).

McGrath, Thomas (ed.), The pastoral and education letters of Bishop James Doyle of Kildare and Leighlin, 1786–1834 (Dublin, 2004).

Ní Mhurchadha, Maighréad (ed.), The vestry records of the united parishes of Finglas, St Margaret’s, Artane and the Ward, 1657–1758 (Dublin, 2007).

Sokoll, Thomas (ed.), Essex pauper letters, 1731–1837 (Oxford, 2001).

Sullivan, Mary C. (ed.), The correspondence of Catherine McAuley, 1818–1841 (Dublin and Baltimore, MD, 2004).

Wallace, W.J.R. (ed.), The vestry records of the parishes of St Bride, St Michael le Pole and St Stephen, Dublin, 1662–1742 (Dublin, 2011).

Legislation

10 & 11 Chas. I, c. 4 [Ire.], ‘An act for the erecting of houses of correction, and for the punishment of rogues, vagabonds, sturdy beggars and other lewd and idle persons’ (1635).

(p.265) 17 & 18 Chas. II, c. 7 [Ire.], ‘An act for provision for ministers in cities and corporate towns, and making the church of St. Andrew’s, in the city of Dublin, presentative for ever’ (1665).

2 Ann., c. 12 [Ire.], ‘An act for the reviving an act for taking away the benefit of clergy in some cases and for transporting of felons’ (4 Mar. 1704).

12 Geo. I, c. 9 [Ire.], ‘An act for the more effectual erecting and the better regulating free schools, and for rebuilding and repairing churches’ (8 Mar. 1726).

11 & 12 Geo. III, c. 11 [Ire.], ‘An act for better regulating the foundling hospital and workhouse in the city of Dublin, and increasing the fund for the support thereof, also for making a provision for appointing a locum tenens in case of the death or absence of the lord mayor or the president of the court of conscience’ (2 June 1772).

11 & 12 Geo. III, c. 30 [Ire.], ‘An act for badging such poor as shall be found unable to support themselves by labour, and otherwise providing for them, and for restraining such as shall be found able to support themselves by labour or industry from begging’ (2 June 1772).

13 & 14 Geo. III, c. 10 [Ire.] (session 1773–74), ‘An act to explain and amend an act made in the 3rd year of the reign of his late majesty King George II entitled an act for better keeping churches in repair’ (4 May 1774).

13 & 14 Geo. III, c. 46 [Ire.], ‘An act for amending an act made the last session of parliament entitled an act for badging such poor as shall be found unable to support themselves by labour, and otherwise providing for them, and for restraining such as shall be found able to support themselves by labour or industry from begging’ (2 June 1774).

15 & 16 Geo. III, c. 14 [Ire.], ‘An act for repealing an act made in the 13th and 14th years of the reign of his present majesty entitled an act to explain and amend an act made in the 3rd year of the reign of his late majesty King George II entitled an act for better keeping churches in repair, and for other purposes’ (7 Mar. 1776).

15 & 16 Geo. III, c. 35 [Ire.] ‘An act for amending an act made in the 11 and 12th years of his present majesty’s reign entitled an act for badging such poor as shall be found unable to support themselves by labour industry from begging, so far as the said act relates to the county of Limerick, and to the county of the city of Limerick, and for extending the provisions of the said law to the town of Coleraine in the county of Londonderry’ (4 Apr. 1776).

35 Geo III, c. 36 [Ire.], ‘An act for more effectually preserving the peace within the city of Dublin, and the district of the metropolis, and establishing a parochial watch in the said city’ (5 June 1795).

36 Geo. III, c. 20 [Ire.], ‘An act more effectually to suppress insurrections, and prevent the disturbance of the public peace’ (24 Mar. 1796).

59 Geo. III, c. 41, ‘An act to establish regulations for preventing contagious diseases in Ireland’ (14 June 1819).

7 Geo. IV, c. 72, ‘An act to consolidate and amend the Laws which regulate the levy and application of church rates and parish cesses, and the election of churchwardens, and the maintenance of parish clerks, in Ireland’ (31 May 1826).

3 & 4 Will. IV, c. 37, ‘An act to alter and amend the laws relating to the temporalities of the Church in Ireland’ (14 Aug. 1833).

1 & 2 Vict., c. 56, ‘An act for the more effectual relief of the destitute poor in Ireland’ (31 July 1838).

(p.266) 10 & 11 Vict., c. 84, ‘An act to make provision for the punishment of vagrants and persons offending against the laws in force for the relief of the destitute poor in Ireland’ (22 July 1847).

27 Vict., c. 17, ‘An act for the abolition of vestry cess in Ireland, and for other purposes relating thereto’ (13 May 1864).

29 & 30 Vict., c. 90, ‘An act to amend the law relating to the public health’ (7 Aug. 1866).

Parliamentary Debates and Parliamentary Papers (Returns, Reports, Minutes and Appendices, Arranged in Chronological Order)

The journals of the House of Commons of the Kingdom of Ireland (19 vols, Dublin, 1796–1800).

Hansard’s parliamentary debates, second series 1820–9.

Hansard’s parliamentary debates, third series, 1830–91.

A statement of the number of offenders committed to the several goals in Ireland, for trial at the different assizes, commission, and quarter sessions, in the years 1805, 1806, 1807, 1808, 1809 & 1810 … H.C. 1812 (246), v, 1005.

Report from committee on the state of mendicity in the metropolis, H.C. 1814–15 (473), iii, 231.

First report from the select committee on the state of disease and condition of the labouring poor, in Ireland, H.C. 1819 (314), viii, 365.

(Ireland). Report of the commissioners appointed by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to inspect the House of Industry, and to report upon the management thereof, with a view to the introduction of such reforms and improvements, as would render it, not only less expensive, but more efficient for the purposes for which it was originally designed, H.C. 1820 (84), viii, 227.

Report from the select committee on the state of Ireland: 1825, H.C. 1825 (129), viii, 1.

First report from the select committee on the state of Ireland: 1825, H.C. 1825 (129), viii, 7.

Second report from the select committee on the state of Ireland: 1825, H.C. 1825 (129), viii, 179.

Third report from the select committee on the state of Ireland: 1825, H.C. 1825 (129), viii, 303.

On the state of Ireland. Fourth report: viz. minutes of evidence, 26 April–21 June, 1825, H.C. 1825 (129), viii, 471.

First report of the commissioners on education in Ireland, H.C. 1825 (400), xii, 1.

Minutes of evidence taken before the select committee of the House of Lords, appointed to inquire into the state of Ireland, more particularly with reference to the circumstances which may have led to the disturbances in that part of the United Kingdom. 24 March–22 June, 1825, H.C. 1825 (521), ix, 249.

Dublin vestries. Returns of the several sums of money assessed in the several parishes in the city of Dublin, by vestries holden during Easter week, in the year 1830 … H.C. 1830 (523), xxxi, 299.

First report of evidence from the select committee on the state of the poor in Ireland. Minutes of evidence: 24 March–14 May, H.C. 1830 (589), vii, 218.

Second report of evidence from the select committee on the state of the poor in Ireland. Minutes of evidence: 18 May–5 June, H.C. 1830 (654), vii, 451.

Third report of evidence from the select committee on the state of the poor in Ireland. Minutes of evidence: 8 June–7 July. With an appendix of documents and papers, and likewise a general index, H.C. 1830 (665), vii, 649.

(p.267) Report of the select committee on the state of the poor in Ireland; being a summary of the first, second and third reports of evidence taken before that committee: together with an appendix of accounts and papers, H.C. 1830 (667), vii, 1.

Population, Ireland. Census of the population, 1831. Comparative abstract of the population in Ireland, as taken in 1821 and 1831, H.C. 1833 (23), xxxix, 3.

Report from His Majesty’s commissioners for inquiring into the administration and practical operation of the Poor Laws, Appendix (C). Communications, H.C. 1834 (44), xxxvii, 264.

Prisons of Ireland. Thirteenth report of Inspectors General of Prisons, Ireland: 1835, H.C. 1835 (114), xxxvi, 381.

First report from His Majesty’s commissioners for inquiring into the condition of the poorer classes in Ireland, with appendix (A) and supplement, H.C. 1835 (369), xxxii, 1.

Poor Inquiry (Ireland), Appendix (C)–Parts I and II. Part I. Reports on the state of the poor, and on the charitable institutions in some of the principal towns; with supplement containing answers to queries. Part II. Report on the city of Dublin, and supplement containing answers to queries; with addenda to appendix (A)., and communications, H.C. 1836 [C 35], xxx, 35.

Third report of the commissioners for inquiring into the condition of the poorer classes in Ireland, H.C. 1836 [C 43], xxx, 1.

Poor Inquiry (Ireland), Appendix (H)–Part I. containing reasons for recommending voluntary associations for the relief of the poor; and reasons for dissenting from the principle of raising funds for the relief of the poor by the voluntary system, as recommended in the report. Also, Tables No I, II, II, referred to in third report, H.C. 1836 [C 41], xxxiv, 643.

Municipal corporations (Ireland). Appendix to the first report of the commissioners. Part III.–Conclusion of the north-west circuit, H.C. 1836 [C 26], xxiv, 1.

Second annual report of the Poor Law Commissioners for England and Wales; together with appendices A. B. C. D., H.C. 1836 (595), xxix, 1.

Report of Geo. Nicholls, Esq., to His Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, on Poor Laws, Ireland, H.C. 1837 [C 69], li, 201.

Second report of Geo. Nicholls, Esq., to Her Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, on Poor Laws, Ireland, H.C. 1837–8 [C 104], xxxviii, 657.

Sixth annual report of the Poor Law Commissioners. With appendices, H.C. 1840 [C 245], xvii, 397.

Seventh annual report of the Poor Law Commissioners, with appendices, H.C. 1841 Session I [C 327], xi, 291.

Londonderry Union. Return to an order of the honourable House of Commons, dated 11 March 1842; for, copies of the contracts entered into for the building of the Londonderry Union poor-house … H.C. 1842 (189), xxxvi, 197.

Appendices B. to F. to the eighth annual report of the Poor Law Commissioners, H.C. 1842 [C 399], xix, 119.

Appendices A to D. to the ninth annual report of the Poor Law Commissioners, H.C. 1843 [C 491], xxi, 53.

Poor Law (Ireland). Copies of any communications, &c. by the Poor Law Commissioners to any boards of guardians in Ireland, in reference to 15th & 16th clauses of the amended Poor Law Act … H.C. 1844 (346), xl, 633.

Report from Her Majesty’s commissioners for inquiring into the administration and practical operation of the Poor Laws in Scotland, H.C. 1844 [C 557], xx, 1.

(p.268) Report from the select committee of the House of Lords on the laws relating to the relief of the destitute poor, and into the operation of the medical charities in Ireland; together with the minutes of evidence taken before the said committee, H.C. 1846 (694), xi, 1.

Reports and communications on vagrancy, H.C. 1847–8 [C 987], liii, 240.

Prisons of Ireland. Twenty-eighth report of the Inspectors-General on the general state of the prisons of Ireland, 1849; with appendices, H.C. 1850 [C 1229], xxix, 305.

The census of Ireland for the year 1851. Part III. Report on the status of disease, H.C. 1854 [C 1765], lviii, 1.

The census of Ireland for the year 1851. Part v. Table of deaths. vol. 1, H.C. 1856 [C 2087-I], xxix, 263.

Ninth annual report of the Commissioners for Administering the Laws for Relief of the Poor in Ireland, with appendices, H.C. 1856 [C 2105], xxviii, 415.

Contemporary Newspapers and Periodicals

The Advocate; or Irish Journal

Belfast Commercial Chronicle

Belfast Monthly Magazine

Belfast News-Letter

Bristol Mercury

Bucks Herald

Cambridge Independent Press

Christian Examiner and Church of Ireland Magazine

Clare Journal, and Ennis Advertiser

Constitution; or Cork Advertiser

Cork Constitution

Cork Mercantile Chronicle

The Correspondent (Dublin)

Coventry Herald

Downpatrick Recorder

Dublin Evening Mail

Dublin Evening Packet and Correspondent

Dublin Morning Register

Dublin Penny Journal

Dublin University Magazine

Edinburgh Evening Courant

Edinburgh Review

Enniskillen Chronicle and Erne Packet

Freeman’s Journal

Galway Weekly Advertiser

Journal of the Statistical Society of London

Leinster Journal (Kilkenny) (known as Finn’s Leinster Journal between 1766 and 1802)

Londonderry Sentinel

The Moderator (Kilkenny)

Morning Chronicle

The Nation

Nenagh Guardian

Saunder’s News-Letter

(p.269) Sligo Journal

Southern Reporter and Cork Commercial Courier

Transactions of the Dublin Statistical Society

Tuam Herald

Ulster Journal of Archaeology

Warwick and Warwickshire Advertiser

Waterford Chronicle

Weekly Telegraph

Wexford Independent

Contemporary Reports of Charitable and other Welfare Organisations (Arranged in Chronological Order, by Organisation)

Dublin House of Industry

An account of the proceedings and state of the fund of the Corporation instituted for the Relief of the Poor, and for Punishing Vagabonds and Sturdy Beggars in the County of the City of Dublin, published by order of the corporation, March 22d, 1774 (Dublin, 1774).

Observations on the state and condition of the poor, under the institution, for their relief, in the city of Dublin; together with the state of the fund, &c. published by order of the Corporation instituted for the Relief of the Poor and for punishing Vagabonds and Sturdy Beggars, in the County of the City of Dublin, March 25th, 1775 (Dublin, 1775).

Observations on the House of Industry, Dublin; and on the plans of the association for suppressing mendicity in that city (Dublin, 1818).

Dublin Mendicity Society

Report of the Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in Dublin. For the year 1818 (Dublin, 1819).

Second report of the Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in Dublin, 1819 (Dublin, 1820).

Report of the general committee of the Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in Dublin. For the year 1820 (Dublin, 1821).

Sixth report of the general committee of the Association of Mendicity in Dublin. For the year 1823 (Dublin, 1824).

Tenth report of the general committee of the Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in Dublin. For the year 1827 (Dublin, 1828).

Nineteenth annual report of the managing committee of the Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in Dublin. For the year 1836: with resolutions upon the subject of the Poor Laws (Dublin, 1837).

Twentieth annual report of the managing committee of the Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in Dublin. For the year 1837 (Dublin, 1838).

Twenty-second annual report of the managing committee of the Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in Dublin. For the year 1839 (Dublin, 1840).

Twenty-third annual report of the managing committee of the Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in Dublin. For the year 1840 (Dublin, 1841).

(p.270) Twenty-fourth annual report of the managing committee of the Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in Dublin. For the year 1841 (Dublin, 1842).

Thirty-first annual report of the managing committee of the Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in Dublin. For the year 1848 (Dublin, 1849).

London Mendicity Society

The first report of the society established in London for the suppression of mendicity (London, 1819).

The third report of the society for the suppression of mendicity, established in London, 1818 (London, 1821).

The thirty-second report of the society for the suppression of mendicity, established in London, 1818 (London, 1850).

Londonderry Mendicity Society

The first report of the general committee of the Mendicity Association, instituted in Londonderry, 13th May, 1825; with a statement of the accounts, and a list of the subscribers for the last year (Derry, 1826).

The second report of the general committee of the Mendicity Association, instituted in Londonderry, 13th May, 1825; with a statement of the accounts, and a list of the subscribers for the last year (Derry, 1827).

The third report of the general committee of the Mendicity Association, instituted in Londonderry, 13th May, 1825; with a statement of the accounts, and a list of the subscribers for the last year (Derry, 1828).

The fourth report of the general committee of the Mendicity Association, instituted in Londonderry, 13th May, 1825; with a statement of the accounts, and a list of the subscribers for the last year (Derry, 1829).

The fifth report of the general committee of the Mendicity Association, instituted in Londonderry, 13th May, 1825; with a statement of the accounts, and a list of the subscribers for the last year (Derry, 1830).

The thirteenth report of the general committee of the Mendicity Association, instituted in Londonderry, May 13, 1825; with a statement of the accounts, and a list of the subscribers for the year ending July 31, 1838 (Derry, 1838).

Strangers’ Friend Society, Dublin

[Clarke, Adam], The nature, design and general rules of the Strangers’ Friend Society, as established in Dublin, 1790 (Dublin, 1799).

For the year 1806. The annual report of the Strangers’ Friend Society, as established in Dublin, in 1790 (Dublin, 1807).

Annual report for the year 1818, of the Benevolent or Strangers’ Friend Society (originated in the year 1790) (Dublin, 1819).

Annual report of the Strangers’ Friend Society; (founded in 1790) for visiting and relieving distressed strangers, and the resident sick poor, at their habitations, in Dublin and its vicinity: with an account of some of the cases relieved, and a list of subscribers, for 1823 (Dublin, 1824).

Annual report of the Strangers’ Friend Society (founded in 1790) for visiting and relieving distressed strangers, and the resident sick poor, in Dublin and its vicinity; with an account of some of the cases relieved, and a list of subscribers for 1831 (Dublin, 1832).

(p.271) Annual report of the Strangers’ Friend Society (founded in 1790) for visiting and relieving distressed strangers and the resident sick poor, in Dublin and its vicinity; with an account of some of the cases relieved, and [a] list of subscribers for 1840 (Dublin, 1841).

Other Organisations (Arranged in Chronological Order)

The first report of the society, instituted in Edinburgh on 25th January 1813, for the suppression of beggars, for the relief of occasional distress, and for the encouragement of industry among the poor. With an account of receipts and disbursements from 27th February to 1st November 1813 (Edinburgh, 1814).

Barker, F., Medical report of the house of recovery and fever-hospital, in Cork-street, Dublin (Dublin, 1818).

First annual report, of the Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in the City of Waterford (Waterford, 1822).

Report of the council of the Chamber of Commerce of Dublin, to the annual assembly of the members of the association, held on the 1st of March 1836 (Dublin, 1836).

First report of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul (Dublin, 1846).

Report of the proceedings of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, in Ireland, during the year 1848 (Dublin, [c.1848]).

First report [of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul in Limerick, 1849], reprinted in Bob Ryan, An open door: the history of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul in Limerick 1846–1996 (Limerick, 1996), pp. 39–50.

Ladies’ Association of Charity, of St. Vincent de Paul. Under the patronage of His Grace the Lord Archbishop. The first annual report (Dublin, 1852).

Other Books, Pamphlets, Reports, Directories and Journal Articles

‘A barrister’, The Vagrant Act, in relation to the liberty of the subject (London, 1824).

An address to the mechanics, workmen, and servants, in the city of Dublin (Dublin, 1828).

Anon., ‘Abolition of Mendicity’ in Belfast Monthly Magazine, ii, no. 11 (30 June 1809), pp. 435–8.

Anon., Arguments in proof of the necessity and practicality of suppressing street begging in the city of Dublin … (Dublin, 1817).

Anon., The constable’s assistant: being a compendium of the duties and powers of constables, and other peace officers; chiefly as they relate to the apprehending of offenders, and the laying of information before magistrates (3rd edn, London, 1818).

Anon., ‘Introduction’ in Journal of the Statistical Society of London, i, no. 1 (May 1838), pp. 1–5.

Anon., A letter to the Right Hon. Lord Goderich, on the deplorable condition of the helpless poor in Ireland, with a plan of relief, as at present partly in operation in several districts of the province of Ulster. By a member of a parochial poor relief committee (Dublin, 1827).

Anon., ‘Management of the poor in Hamburg’ in Belfast Monthly Magazine, iii, no. 13 (31 Aug. 1809), pp. 94–9.

Anon., People of England! (n.p. [London?], [c.early nineteenth century]).

Anon., The real grievance of the Irish peasantry, as immediately felt and complained of among themselves, a fruitful source of beggary and idleness, and the main support of the Rock system … (London, 1825).

(p.272) Anon., ‘The Scottish system of Poor Laws’ in Dublin University Magazine, iii, no. 17 (May 1834), pp. 508–22.

Anon., ‘Tenant right, repeal and Poor Laws: dangers and duties of the Conservative Party and landed interest in Ireland’ in Dublin University Magazine, xxxi, no. 181 (Jan. 1848), pp. 134–58.

Association for the Preservation of the Memorials of the Dead, Ireland. Journal for the year 1892, ii, no. 1 ([1892]).

Atthill, Lombe, Recollections of an Irish doctor (1911; repr. Whitegate, 2007).

Barker, F. and J. Cheyne, An account of the rise, progress, and decline of the fever lately epidemic in Ireland, together with communications from physicians in the provinces, and various official documents (2 vols, Dublin, 1821).

Barrow, John, A tour round Ireland through the sea-coast counties in the autumn of 1835 (London, 1836).

Bicheno, J.E., Ireland, and its economy; being the result of observations made in a tour through the country in the autumn of 1829 (London, 1830).

Binns, Jonathan, The miseries and beauties of Ireland (2 vols, London, 1837).

Boileau, John P., ‘Statistics of mendicancy’ in Journal of the Statistical Society of London, xii, no. 1 (Feb. 1849), pp. 43–8.

The Book of Common Prayer, and administration of the sacraments and other rites and ceremonies of the Church, according to the use of the United Church of England and Ireland; together with the psalter, or psalms of David, pointed as they are to be sung or said in churches (Edinburgh, 1818).

Breakey, William Alex, Handbook for magistrates, clerks of petty sessions, solicitors, coroners, &c., being a comprehensive index and synopsis of the common and statute law in Ireland (Dublin, 1895).

Bullingbrooke, E.D., Ecclesiastical law; or, the statutes, constitutions, canons, rubricks, and articles, of the Church of Ireland. Methodically digested under proper heads, with a commentary, historical and juridical (2 vols, Dublin, 1770).

Calvin, John, Commentaries on the four last books of Moses arranged in the form of a harmony, trans. Charles William Bingham (4 vols, Grand Rapids, MI, 1950).

Carberry, Mary, The farm by Lough Gur: the story of Mary Fogarty (Sissy O’Brien) (London, 1937).

[Carleton, William], ‘A pilgrimage to Patrick’s Purgatory’ in Christian Examiner, vi, no. 34 (Apr. 1828), pp. 268–86.

—— Traits and stories of the Irish peasantry (1844; 2 vols, repr. Gerrards Cross and Savage, MD, 1990).

—— Traits and stories of the Irish peasantry (new edn, 2 vols, London, 1852).

—— The autobiography of William Carleton (1896; repr. London, 1968).

Carlile, James, A series of sermons, on the nature and effects of repentance and faith (London, 1821).

[Carlile, James], Memorial recommending the establishment of a mission to the Roman Catholics of Ireland (Dublin, 1825).

Carlyle, Thomas, Chartism (London, 1840).

Colby’s Ordnance Survey memoir of Londonderry (1837; 2nd edn, Limavady, 1990).

Colquhoun, Patrick, A treatise on indigence; exhibiting a general view of the natural resources for productive labour; with propositions for ameliorating the condition of the poor … (London, 1806).

(p.273) A complete Catholic registry, directory, and almanac … 1836, 1838, 1845.

Cooke, Henry, A sermon, preached in the meeting-house of the Third Presbyterian Congregation, Belfast, on Sunday, the 18th December, 1814, in aid of the funds of the House of Industry (3rd edn, Belfast, 1815).

Cunningham, Patrick, ‘The Catholic directory for 1821’ in Reportorium Novum, ii, no. 2 (1960), pp. 324–63.

[Daly, Robert], ‘Improvement of Ireland–Poor Laws’ in Christian Examiner, x, no. 55 (Jan. 1830), pp. 1–8.

de Bhaldraithe, Tomás (ed.), The diary of an Irish countryman 1827–1835: a translation of Cín Lae Amhlaoibh (Cork, 1979).

Deane’s Limerick almanack, directory and advertiser, 1838.

Dickens, Charles, The adventures of Oliver Twist (1839; Oxford, 1987).

Dobbs, Arthur, An essay on the trade and improvement of Ireland (2 parts, Dublin, 1729–31).

Dorian, Hugh, The outer edge of Ulster: a memoir of social life in nineteenth-century Donegal, ed. Breandán Mac Suibhne and David Dickson (Dublin, 2001).

Douglas, John, Observations on the necessity of a legal provision for the Irish poor, as the means of improving the condition of the Irish people, and protecting the British landlord, farmer and labourer (London, 1828).

Doyle, James, The general catechism, revised, corrected, and enlarged, by the Right Reverend James Doyle, D.D., Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, and prescribed by him to be taught throughout the dioceses of Kildare and Leighlin (Dublin, 1843).

Dublin almanac, and general register of Ireland, 1841.

Dubourdieu, John, Statistical survey of the county of Antrim, with observations on the means of improvement; drawn up for the consideration, and by direction of the Dublin Society (Dublin, 1812).

Eden, Frederic Morton, The state of the poor: a history of the labouring classes in England, with parochial reports, ed. A.G.L. Rogers (1797; repr. London, 1928).

Edgar, John, The General Assembly’s Irish schools. The priest’s curse (n.p. [Belfast?], [c.1847]).

—— Connaught harvest (Belfast, 1853).

The evidence of His Grace the Archbishop of Dublin, as taken before the select committee of the House of Lords, appointed to inquire into the collection and payment of tithes in Ireland, and the state of the laws relating thereto (London, 1832).

‘E.W.’, ‘The beggarman’s tale’ in Dublin Penny Journal, i, no. 51 (15 June 1833), pp. 406–7.

‘Extract from the report of the establishments at Hamburg, in 1799’ in Belfast Monthly Magazine, iii, no. 13 (31 Aug. 1809), pp. 99–101.

Finlay, John, The office and duty of church-warden and parish officer (Dublin, 1824).

Fitzgerald, Michael, Wickedness and nullity of human laws against mendicancy, and the anti Christian character of the Irish Poor-law, proved from the consideration of alms-giving, mendicancy, and Poor Laws, on Christian and Catholic principles, in a sermon, preached in St. Michael’s, Limerick (on Whitsunday, the 4th of June, 1843,) on behalf of the Thomond-gate male and female schools (Dublin, 1843).

Flood, Henry, Poor Laws: arguments against a provision for paupers, if it be parochial or perpetual (Dublin, 1830).

Fry, Elizabeth and Joseph John Gurney, Report addressed to the Marquess Wellesley, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, respecting their late visit to that country (London, 1827).

(p.274) Full and true account of the trial of two most barbarous and cruel beggar-women, Sarah Mullholland & Maria Burke, who were found guilty of strangling a child, for the purpose of extorting charity!!! Together with various particulars concerning the impostures of other street beggars ([Dublin?], [c.1830]).

Gahan, William, ‘On the necessity and signal advantages of alms and works of mercy’ in William Gahan, Sermons and moral discourses, for all the Sundays and principal festivals of the year, on the most important truths and maxims of the gospels (3rd edn, 2 vols, Dublin, 1825).

Gamble, John, Views of society and manners in the north of Ireland, in a series of letters written in the year 1818 (London, 1819).

—— Sketches of history, politics, and manners in Dublin, and the north of Ireland, in 1810 (new edn, London, 1826).

The gentleman’s and citizen’s almanac (Watson’s) for 1820.

Graham, John, God’s revenge against rebellion: an historical poem on the state of Ireland, with notes and an appendix, consisting of a pastoral epistle from Rome, and two letters to the editor of the Dublin Evening Post (Dublin, 1820).

Griscom, John, A year in Europe, comprising a journal of observations in England, Scotland, Ireland, France, Switzerland, the north of Italy, and Holland, in 1818 and 1819 (2 vols, New York, 1823).

Hackett, William, ‘The Irish bacach, or professional beggar, viewed archaeologically’ in Ulster Journal of Archaeology, 1st series, ix (1861–2), pp. 256–71.

Hall, [Mrs] S.C., Tales of Irish life and character (Edinburgh and London, 1910).

Harty, William, Historic sketch of the causes, extent, and mortality of contagious fever, epidemic in Ireland in 1741, and during 1817, 1818, and 1819: together with a review of the causes, medical and statistical productive of epidemic fever in Ireland (Dublin, [1820]).

Haughton, James, ‘What is doing for the people in Dublin?’ in People’s Journal (London), ii (1846), pp. 232–6.

Haughton, Samuel, Memoir of James Haughton, with extracts from his private and published letters (Dublin, 1877).

[Haywood, Eliza], A present for a servant-maid. Or, the sure means of gaining love and esteem (Dublin, 1744).

‘Hibernicus’, ‘On the Poor Laws’ in Christian Examiner, xi, no. 73 (July 1831), pp. 506–12.

—— ‘On the Poor Laws’ in Christian Examiner, xi, no. 74 (Aug. 1831), pp. 590–7.

Hincks, Thomas Dix, A short account of the different charitable institutions of the city of Cork, with remarks (Cork, 1802).

Hornihold, [John Joseph], The real principles of Catholics; or, a catechism by way of general instruction, explaining the principal points of the doctrine & ceremonies of the Catholic Church (4th edn, Dublin, 1821).

Inglis, Henry D., Ireland in 1834. A journey through Ireland, during the spring, summer, and autumn of 1834 (2nd edn, 2 vols, London, 1835).

Ireland. An account of all sums of money levied in the several parishes of Ireland, by authority of vestry, for building and repairing of churches, salaries of parish clerks and other officers, and other incidents; particularly distinguishing any sums which may have been raised for purchase of organs or stoves, or salaries of organists or choristers. Part I (n.p., [1824]).

(p.275) Laing, David (ed.), The works of John Knox (6 vols, Edinburgh, 1895).

Lawson, James A., ‘On the connexion between statistics and political economy’ in Transactions of the Dublin Statistical Society, i, session 1 (1847–8), pp. 3–9.

Le Fanu, W.R., Seventy years of Irish life being anecdotes and reminiscences (2nd edn, London, 1893).

Lewis, Samuel, A topographical dictionary of Ireland, comprising the several counties, cities, boroughs, corporate, market and post towns, parishes and villages, with historical and statistical descriptions … (2 vols, London, 1837).

Logan, William, An exposure, from personal observation, of female prostitution in London, Leeds and Rochdale, and especially in the city of Glasgow, with remarks on the cause, extent, results and remedy of the evil (2nd edn, Glasgow, 1843).

Longfield, Mountiford, Four lectures on Poor Laws, delivered in Trinity term, 1834 (Dublin, 1834).

Macauly, James, Ireland in 1872: a tour of observations. With remarks on Irish public questions (London, 1873).

McCrea, J.B., Protestant poor a conservative element of society; being a sermon preached in Ebenezer Church, Dublin, for the Protestant Colonisation Society of Ireland (Dublin, [c.1840]).

Mac Doinnléibhe, P., ‘Castleblaney Poor Law rate book (1847)’ in Clogher Record, v, no. 1 (1963), pp. 131–48.

MacNally, Leonard, The justice of the peace for Ireland: containing the authorities and duties of that officer … (2 vols, Dublin, 1808).

Magee, Hamilton, Fifty years in the Irish Mission (Belfast and Edinburgh, [c.1905]).

Malthus, T.R., An essay on the principle of population; or, a view of its past and present effects on human happiness; with an inquiry into our prospects respecting the future removal or mitigation of the evils which it occasions (new edn, London, 1803).

[Mannock, John], The poor man’s catechism; or, the Christian doctrine explained; with suitable admonitions (10th edn, Dublin, 1832).

Martin, Matthew, Letter to the Right Hon. Lord Pelham, on the state of mendicity in the Metropolis (London, 1803).

—— Substance of a letter, dated Poet’s Corner, Westminster, 3d March, 1803, to the Right Hon. Lord Pelham, on the state of mendicity in the Metropolis (London, 1811).

Martin’s Belfast directory for 1841–42 … (1841; repr. Belfast, 1992).

Mason, William Shaw, A statistical account, or parochial survey of Ireland, drawn up from the communications of the clergy (3 vols, Dublin, 1814).

M[athison]., G.F.G., Journal of a tour in Ireland during the months of October and November 1835 (London, 1836).

Meagher William, Notices of the life and character of His Grace Most Rev. Daniel Murray, late Archbishop of Dublin, as contained in the commemorative oration pronounced in the Church of the Conception, Dublin, on occasion of His Grace’s months’ mind. With historical and biographical notes (Dublin, 1853).

Moncrieff Wilson, James, Statistics of crime in Ireland, 1842 to 1856. A paper read before the section of Economic Science and Statistics of the British Association. At Dublin, on Saturday, 29th of August, 1857 (Dublin, 1857).

The Most Rev. Dr James Butler’s Catechism: revised, enlarged, approved, and recommended by the four R.C. archbishops of Ireland, as a general catechism for the kingdom (26th edn, Dublin, 1836).

(p.276) Murray, Daniel, A sermon, preached on the nativity of our Blessed Saviour, in the Church of the Conception, Marlborough-Street, on the 25th December, 1837, by the most Rev. Doctor Murray, and published for the benefit of St. Vincent’s Hospital, Stephen’s Green, at the desire of some friends of that charitable institution (Dublin, 1838).

[Newport, John], A slight peep into the Church vestry system in Ireland (London, [c.1825]).

Nicholls, George, A history of the Irish Poor Law, in connexion with the condition of the people (London, 1856).

—— A history of the Scotch Poor Law, in connexion with the condition of the people (London, 1856).

Nicholson, Asenath, Annals of the Famine in Ireland, ed. Maureen Murphy (1851; Dublin, 1998).

O’Connor, Denis Charles, Seventeen years’ experience of workhouse life: with suggestions for reforming the Poor Law and its administration (Dublin, 1861).

[O’Flanagan, Mary Padua], The life and work of Mary Aikenhead, foundress of the Congregation of Irish Sisters of Charity 1787–1858 (London, 1924).

O’Hanlon, W.M., Walks among the poor of Belfast, and suggestions for their improvement (Belfast, 1853).

O’Hara Family [John and Michael Banim], Father Connell (3 vols, London, 1842).

O’Malley, Thaddeus, Poor Laws–Ireland. An idea of a Poor Law for Ireland (2nd edn, London, 1837).

—— A sketch of the state of popular education in Holland, Prussia, Belgium, and France (2nd edn, London and Dublin, 1840).

—— An address to mechanics, small farmers, and the working classes generally, upon a feasible means of greatly improving their condition; with a word in their behalf to employers and landlords (Dublin, 1845).

[Otway, Caesar], Sketches in Ireland: descriptive of interesting, and hitherto unnoticed districts, in the north and south (Dublin, 1827).

—— Sketches in Erris and Tyrawly (Dublin, 1841).

Page, Frederick, Observations on the state of the indigent poor in Ireland, and the existing institutions for the relief (London, 1830).

Pichot, Amédee, L’Irlande et Le Pays de Galles, esquisses de voyages, d’économie politique, d’histoire, de biographie, de littérature, etc., etc., etc. (2 vols, Paris, 1850).

‘Proceedings of statistical societies’ in Journal of the Statistical Society of London, i, no. 1 (May 1838).

[Pückler-Muskau, Hermann von], Tour in England, Ireland, and France, in the years 1826, 1827, 1828, and 1829, with remarks on the manners and customs of the inhabitants, and anecdotes of distinguished public characters. In a series of letters (Philadelphia, 1833).

Quennell, Peter (ed.), Mayhew’s London underworld (London, 1987).

Report of the committee for investigating the causes of the alarming increase of juvenile delinquency in the metropolis (London, 1816).

A report upon certain charitable establishments in the city of Dublin, which receive aid from parliament (Dublin, 1809).

Revans, John, Evils of the state of Ireland; their causes and their remedy–a Poor Law (London, [c.1836]).

A review of the existing causes which at present disturb the tranquillity of Ireland, recommended to the serious attention of landholders, the established clergy, and the (p.277) Hibernian Sunday School Society: also, an exposure of the system adopted by the Roman Catholic clergy to deter their flocks from reading the sacred scriptures (Dublin, 1822).

Rules and constitutions of the Institute of the Religious Sisterhood of the Presentation of the Ever Blessed Virgin Mary, established in the City of Cork, for the charitable instruction of poor girls conformably to the rules of the late Pope, Pius VI … (Cork, 1809).

‘Rules and regulations for the House of Industry, in Belfast …’ in Belfast Monthly Magazine, iv, no. 21 (30 Apr. 1810), pp. 261–9.

[Senior, Nassau William], ‘Mendicancy in Ireland’ in Edinburgh Review, lxxvii, no. 156 (Apr. 1843), pp. 391–411.

Shackleton, Ebenezer, Poor Laws: the safest, cheapest and surest cure for boyism of every kind in Ireland (Dublin, 1832).

Skelton, Philip, The necessity of tillage and granaries. In a letter to a member of parliament living in the county of ___ (Dublin, 1741).

Slater’s national commercial directory for Ireland … 1846.

Smith, William, A consecutive history of the rise, progress, and present state of Wesleyan Methodism in Ireland (Dublin, 1830).

Statement of some of the causes of the disturbances in Ireland, and of the miserable state of the peasantry; with a plan for commencing on sound principles, an amelioration of their condition, thereby removing the causes of the disturbances, and bringing the country into a state of peace and quietness (Dublin, 1825).

‘Statistical Society of Ulster’ in Journal of the Statistical Society of London, i, no. 1 (May 1838), p. 52.

Stokes, Whitley, Observations on contagion (2nd edn, Dublin, 1818).

Sumner, John Bird, ‘Sermon VII. The surest mode of benefitting the poor’ in John Bird Sumner, Christian charity; its obligations and objects, with reference to the present state of society. In a series of sermons (2nd edn, London, 1841), pp. 104–20.

[Swift, Jonathan], A proposal for giving badges to the beggars in all the parishes of Dublin (London, 1737).

Thackeray, William Makepeace, The Irish sketchbook of 1842 (1843; repr. Dublin, 2005).

‘Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion’, accessed from Church of Ireland website https://www.ireland.anglican.org/our-faith/39-articles-of-religion (5 Jan. 2017).

Toone, William, The magistrate’s manual; or, a summary of the duties and powers of a justice of the peace, carefully compiled from the best authorities; with extracts from adjudged cases and the statutes to the 56th George III. 1816 … (2nd edn, London, 1817).

Townsend, Joseph, A journey through Spain in the years 1786 and 1787; with particular attention to the agriculture, manufactures, commerce, population, taxes and revenue of that country; and remarks in passing through a part of France (3 vols, London, 1791).

[Voght, Caspar von], Account of the management of the poor in Hamburgh, since the year 1788: in a letter to some friends of the poor in Great Britain (Dublin, 1796).

Warburton, J., J. Whitelaw and Robert Walsh, History of the city of Dublin, from the earliest accounts to the present time … (2 vols, London, 1818).

Weld, Isaac, Statistical survey of the county of Roscommon, drawn up under the direction of the Royal Dublin Society (Dublin, 1832).

Whately, E. Jane, Life and correspondence of Richard Whately, D.D. late Archbishop of Dublin (2 vols, London, 1866).

(p.278) Whately, Richard, Christ’s example, an instruction as to the best modes of dispensing charity. A sermon delivered for the benefit of the Relief and Clothing Fund, in Doctor Steevens’ Hospital (Dublin, 1835).

White, Francis, Report and observations on the state of the poor of Dublin (Dublin, 1833).

Whitelaw, James, An essay on the population of Dublin. Being the result of an actual survey taken in 1798, with great care and precision, and arranged in a manner entirely new (Dublin, 1805).

Wight, Thomas (rev. John Rutty), A history of the rise and progress of the people called Quakers in Ireland … (Dublin, 1751).

Wilberforce, William, A practical view of the prevailing religious system of professed Christians, in the higher and middle classes in this country, contrasted with real Christianity (London, 1797).

Wilde, W[illiam] R., Irish popular superstitions (Dublin, [1852]).

[Wilde, William R.], ‘The food of the Irish’ in Dublin University Magazine, xliii, no. 154 (Feb. 1854), pp. 127–46.

Wilson’s Dublin directory for the year 1822.

[Woodward, Richard], A scheme for establishing county poor-houses, in the kingdom of Ireland (Dublin, 1766).

Woodward, Richard, An argument in support of the right of the poor in the kingdom of Ireland to a national provision; in the appendix to which, an attempt is made to settle a measure of the contribution due from each man to the poor, on the footing of justice (Dublin, 1768).

—— An address to the public, on the expediency of a regular plan for the maintenance and government of the poor… (Dublin, 1775).

Wright, G.N., An historical guide to the city of Dublin, illustrated by engravings, and a plan of the city (2nd edn, London, 1825).

Young, Arthur, A tour in Ireland: with general observations on the present state of the kingdom. Made in the years 1776, 1777, and 1778, and brought down to the end of 1779 (2 vols, Dublin, 1780).

Secondary Sources

Reference Material

McGuire, James and James Quinn (eds), Dictionary of Irish biography: from the earliest times to the year 2002 (9 vols, Cambridge, 2009).

Matthew, H.C.G. and Brian Harrison (eds), Oxford dictionary of national biography: from the earliest times to the year 2000 (60 vols, Oxford, 2004).

Vaughan, W.E. and A.J. Fitzpatrick (eds), Irish historical statistics: population, 1821–1971 (Dublin, 1978).

Books and Articles

Akenson, Donald Harman, The Church of Ireland: ecclesiastical reform and revolution, 1800–1885 (New Haven, CT and London, 1971).

Ashton, T.S., Economic and social investigations in Manchester, 1833–1933: a centenary history of the Manchester Statistical Society (1934; repr. Brighton, 1977).

(p.279) Aspinwall, Bernard, ‘The welfare state within the state: the Saint Vincent de Paul Society in Glasgow, 1848–1920’ in W.J. Sheils and Diana Wood (eds), Voluntary religion. Papers read at the 1985 summer meeting and the 1986 winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, Studies in Church History, xxiii (Oxford, 1986), pp. 445–59.

[Atkinson, Sarah], Mary Aikenhead: her life, her work, and her friends, giving a history of the foundation of the congregation of the Irish Sisters of Charity (3rd edn, Dublin, 1911).

Bardon, Jonathan, A history of Ulster (Belfast, 1992).

Barnard, Toby, A new anatomy of Ireland: the Irish Protestants, 1649–1770 (New Haven, CT and London, 2003).

—— ‘Hamilton’s “Cries of Dublin”: the society and economy of mid-eighteenth-century Dublin’ in William Laffan (ed.), The cries of Dublin &c: drawn from the life by Hugh Douglas Hamilton, 1760 (Dublin, 2003), pp. 26–37.

—— The kingdom of Ireland, 1641–1760 (Basingstoke, 2004).

Barrett, Sam, ‘Kinship, poor relief and the welfare process in early modern England’ in Steven King and Alannah Tomkins (eds), The poor in England 1700–1850: an economy of makeshifts (Manchester, 2003), pp. 199–227.

Bebbington, D.W., Evangelicalism in modern Britain: a history from the 1730s to the 1980s (London, 1989).

Beier, A.L., ‘Vagrants and the social order in Elizabethan England’ in Past & Present, lxiv (Aug. 1974), pp. 3–29.

—— Masterless men: the vagrancy problem in England 1560–1640 (London and New York, 1985).

Bolster, Evelyn, ‘The last will and testament of Archbishop Daniel Murray of Dublin (d.1852)’ in Collectanea Hibernica, nos. 21–2 (1979–80), pp. 149–59.

Bowen, Desmond, Souperism: myth or reality? A study in souperism (Cork, 1970).

Brown, Michael, Patrick M. Geoghegan and James Kelly (eds), The Irish Act of Union, 1800: bicentennial essays (Dublin, 2003).

Brown, Stewart J., The national churches of England, Ireland, and Scotland, 1801–1846 (Oxford, 2001).

Bulmer, Martin, Kevin Bales and Kathryn Kish Sklar (eds), The social survey in historical perspective, 1880–1940 (Cambridge, 1991).

—— ‘The social survey in historical perspective’ in Martin Bulmer, Kevin Bales and Kathryn Kish Sklar (eds), The social survey in historical perspective, 1880–1940 (Cambridge, 1991), pp. 1–48.

Burke, Helen, The people and the Poor Law in 19th-century Ireland (Littlehampton, 1987).

Burns, Arthur and Joanna Innes (eds), Rethinking the age of reform: Britain 1780–1850 (Cambridge, 2003).

Callahan, William J., ‘The problem of confinement: an aspect of poor relief in eighteenth-century Spain’ in Hispanic American Historical Review, li, no. 1 (Feb. 1971), pp. 1–24.

Clear, Caitriona, ‘Walls within walls: nuns in nineteenth-century Ireland’ in Chris Curtin, Pauline Jackson and Barbara O’Connor (eds), Gender in Irish society (Galway, 1987), pp. 134–51.

—— ‘The limits of female autonomy: nuns in nineteenth-century Ireland’ in Maria Luddy and Cliona Murphy (eds), Women surviving (Dublin, 1990), pp. 15–50.

(p.280) —— ‘Homelessness, crime, punishment and poor relief in Galway, 1850–1914: an introduction’ in Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, l (1998), pp. 118–34.

Coll, Blanche D., ‘The Baltimore Society for the Prevention of Pauperism, 1820–1822’ in American Historical Review, lxi, no. 1 (Oct. 1955), pp. 77–87.

Comerford, R.V. and Jennifer Kelly (eds), Associational culture in Ireland and abroad (Dublin, 2010).

Comerford, W.J.V., ‘Some notes on the borough of Tuam and its records, 1817–1822’ in Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, xv, no. iii (1931), pp. 97–120.

Connolly, S.J., ‘The “blessed turf”: cholera and popular panic in Ireland, June 1832’ in Irish Historical Studies, xxiii, no. 91 (May 1983), pp. 214–32.

—— ‘Religion, work-discipline and economic attitudes: the case of Ireland’ in T.M. Devine and David Dickson (eds), Ireland and Scotland 1600–1850: parallels and contrasts in economic and social development (Edinburgh, 1983), pp. 235–45.

—— Priests and people in pre-Famine Ireland, 1780–1845 (Dublin, 1985).

—— Religion and society in nineteenth-century Ireland (Dundalk, 1994).

—— (ed.), Belfast 400: people, place and history (Liverpool, 2012).

—— ‘Improving town, 1750–1820’ in S.J. Connolly (ed.), Belfast 400: people, place and history (Liverpool, 2012), pp. 161–97.

Connolly, S.J. and Gillian McIntosh, ‘Whose city? Belonging and exclusion in the nineteenth-century urban world’ in S.J. Connolly (ed.), Belfast 400: people, place and history (Liverpool, 2012), pp. 237–69.

Corish, Patrick J., The Irish Catholic experience: a historical survey (Dublin, 1986).

Cousins, Mel, ‘The Irish parliament and relief of the poor: the 1772 legislation establishing houses of industry’ in Eighteenth-Century Ireland, xxviii (2013), pp. 95–115.

—— ‘Philanthropy and poor relief before the Poor Law, 1801–30’ in Laurence M. Geary and Oonagh Walsh (eds), Philanthropy in nineteenth-century Ireland (Dublin, 2015), pp. 23–37.

Crawford, John, The Church of Ireland in Victorian Dublin (Dublin, 2005).

Crawford, W.H., ‘The Belfast middle-classes in the late eighteenth century’ in David Dickson, Dáire Keogh and Kevin Whelan (eds), The United Irishmen: republicanism, radicalism and rebellion (Dublin, 1993), pp. 62–73.

Cronin (née Murphy), Maura, ‘The economic and social structure of nineteenth-century Cork’ in David Harkness and Mary O’Dowd (eds), The town in Ireland, Historical Studies XIII (Belfast, 1981), pp. 125–54.

Crossick, Geoffrey, ‘From gentlemen to the residuum: languages of social description in Victorian Britain’ in Penelope J. Corfield (ed.), Language, history and class (Oxford and Cambridge, MA, 1991), pp. 150–78.

Crossman, Virginia, The Poor Law in Ireland, 1838–1948 (Dundalk, 2006).

—— ‘Middle-class attitudes to poverty and welfare in post-Famine Ireland’ in Fintan Lane (ed.) Politics, society and the middle class in modern Ireland (Basingstoke, 2010), pp. 130–47.

—— ‘“Attending to the wants of poverty”: Paul Cullen, the relief of poverty and the development of social welfare in Ireland’ in Dáire Keogh and Albert McDonnell (eds), Cardinal Paul Cullen and his world (Dublin, 2011), pp. 146–65.

—— Poverty and the Poor Law in Ireland 1850–1914 (Liverpool, 2013).

(p.281) Crossman, Virginia and Peter Gray (eds), Poverty and welfare in Ireland, 1838–1948 (Dublin, 2011).

—— ‘Introduction: poverty and welfare in Ireland, 1838–1948’ in Virginia Crossman and Peter Gray (eds), Poverty and welfare in Ireland, 1838–1948 (Dublin, 2011), pp. 1–20.

Cullen, Bob, Thomas L. Synnott: the career of a Dublin Catholic 1830–1870 (Dublin, 1997).

Cullen, Mary, ‘Breadwinners and providers: women in the household economy of labouring families, 1835–6’ in Maria Luddy and Cliona Murphy (eds), Women surviving (Dublin, 1990), pp. 85–116.

Cullen, Michael J., The statistical movement in early Victorian Britain: the foundations of empirical social research (Hassocks and New York, 1975).

Cunningham, Hugh and Joanna Innes (eds), Charity, philanthropy and reform from the 1690s to 1850 (Basingstoke, 1998).

Cunningham, John, ‘A town tormented by the sea’: Galway, 1790–1914 (Dublin, 2004).

D’Arcy Wood, Gillen, Tambora: the eruption that changed the world (Princeton, NJ, 2015).

Daunton, Martin (ed.), Charity, self-interest and welfare in the English past (London, 1996).

Dickey, Brian, ‘“Going about doing good”: evangelicals and poverty c.1815–1870’ in John Wolffe (ed.), Evangelical faith and public zeal: evangelicals and society in Britain 1780–1980 (London, 1995), pp. 38–58.

Dickson, David (ed.), The gorgeous mask: Dublin, 1700–1850 (Dublin, 1987).

—— ‘In search of the old Irish Poor Law’ in Rosalind Mitchison and Peter Roebuck (eds), Economy and society in Scotland and Ireland, 1500–1939 (Edinburgh, 1988), pp. 149–59.

—— Arctic Ireland: the extraordinary story of the great frost and forgotten famine of 1740–41 (Belfast, 1998).

Dickson, David, Dáire Keogh and Kevin Whelan (eds), The United Irishmen: republicanism, radicalism and rebellion (Dublin, 1993).

Dickson, J.N. Ian, Beyond religious discourse: sermons, preaching and evangelical Protestants in nineteenth-century Irish society (Milton Keynes, 2007).

Digby, Anne, British welfare policy: workhouse to workforce (London, 1989).

Dillon, Charles and Henry A. Jeffries (eds), Tyrone: history and society (Dublin, 2000).

Dinan, Susan E., Women and poor relief in seventeenth-century France: the early history of the Daughters of Charity (Aldershot, 2006).

Disley, Emma, ‘Degrees of glory: Protestant doctrine and the concept of rewards hereafter’ in Journal of Theological Studies, new series, xliv, pt. 1 (Apr. 1991), pp. 77–105.

Dudley, Rowena, ‘The Dublin parish, 1660–1730’ in Elizabeth FitzPatrick and Raymond Gillespie (eds), The parish in medieval and early modern Ireland: community, territory and building (Dublin, 2006), pp. 277–96.

Dudley Edwards, Owen, ‘William Carleton and Caesar Otway: a problem in Irish identity’ in John Cunningham and Niall Ó Ciosáin (eds), Culture and society in Ireland since 1750: essays in honour of Gearóid Ó Tuathaigh (Dublin, 2015), pp. 64–85.

(p.282) Dupré Atkinson, Edward, An Ulster parish: being a history of Donaghcloney (Waringstown) (Dublin, 1898).

Dyson, Richard, ‘Welfare provision in Oxford during the latter stages of the Old Poor Law, 1800–1834’ in Historical Journal, lii, no. 4 (2009), pp. 943–62.

Dyson, Richard and Steven King, ‘“The streets are paved with beggars”: experiences and perceptions of beggars in nineteenth-century Oxford’ in Beate Althammer (ed.), Bettler der europäischen Stadt der Moderne: Zwischen Barmherzigkeit, Repression und Sozialreform (Frankfurt am Main, 2007), pp. 59–89.

Eccles, Audrey, Vagrancy in law and practice under the Old Poor Law (Farnham, 2012).

Elliott, Marianne, The Catholics of Ulster (London, 2000).

Evans, Eric J. (ed.), Social policy, 1830–1914: individualism, collectivism and the origins of the Welfare State (London and Boston, 1978).

Farrell, Michael, The Poor Law and the workhouse in Belfast, 1838–1948 (Belfast, 1978).

Fitzgerald, Patrick, ‘A sentence to sail: the transportation of Irish convicts and vagrants to colonial America in the eighteenth century’ in Patrick Fitzgerald and Steve Ickringill (eds), Atlantic crossroads: historical connections between Scotland, Ulster and North America (Newtownards, 2001), pp. 114–32.

Fitzpatrick, David, ‘“A peculiar tramping people”: the Irish in Britain, 1801–70’ in W.E. Vaughan (ed.), A new history of Ireland, vol. 5, Ireland under the Union, I, 1801–70 (Oxford, 1989), pp. 623–60.

Foley, Tadhg and Seán Ryder (eds), Ideology and Ireland in the nineteenth century (Dublin, 1998).

Fontaine, Laurence and Jürgen Schlumbohm, ‘Household strategies for survival: an introduction’ in International Review of Social History, xlv (2000), pp. 1–17.

Forrest, Alan, The French Revolution and the poor (Oxford, 1981).

Fraser, Derek, The evolution of the British welfare state: a history of social policy since the Industrial Revolution (2nd edn, Basingstoke, 1984).

Fuchs, Rachel, Gender and poverty in nineteenth-century Europe (Cambridge, 2005).

Gallagher, Fióna, The streets of Sligo: urban evolution over the course of seven centuries (Sligo, 2008).

Garnham, Neal, ‘The criminal law, 1692–1760: England and Ireland compared’ in S.J. Connolly (ed.), Kingdoms united? Great Britain and Ireland since 1500: integration and diversity (Dublin, 1999), pp. 215–24.

Geary, Laurence M., ‘“The whole country was in motion”: mendicancy and vagrancy in pre-Famine Ireland’ in Jacqueline Hill and Colm Lennon (eds), Luxury and austerity, Historical Studies XXI (Dublin, 1999), pp. 121–36.

—— Medicine and charity in Ireland, 1718–1851 (Dublin, 2004).

—— ‘“The best relief the poor can receive is from themselves”: the Society for Promoting the Comforts of the Poor’ in Laurence M. Geary and Oonagh Walsh (eds), Philanthropy in nineteenth-century Ireland (Dublin, 2015), pp. 38–58.

Geary, Laurence M. and Oonagh Walsh (eds), Philanthropy in nineteenth-century Ireland (Dublin, 2015).

Geoghegan, Patrick M., King Dan: the rise of Daniel O’Connell, 1775–1829 (Dublin, 2008).

Gillespie, Raymond, ‘Rev. Dr John Yarner’s notebook: religion in Restoration Dublin’ in Archivium Hibernicum, lii (1998), pp. 30–41.

(p.283) —— ‘The coming of reform, 1500–58’ in Kenneth Milne (ed.), Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin: a history (Dublin, 2000), pp. 151–73.

—— ‘Making Belfast, 1600–1750’ in S.J. Connolly (ed.), Belfast 400: people, place and history (Liverpool, 2012), pp. 123–59.

Gillespie, Raymond and Stephen A. Royle, Belfast. Part I, to 1840, Irish Historic Towns Atlas, no. 12 (Dublin, 2003).

Goodbody, Olive C., Guide to Irish Quaker records, 1654–1860 (IMC, Dublin, 1967).

Gray, Peter, ‘The Irish Poor Law and the Great Famine’, paper presented to the International Economic History Congress conference, Helsinki, 2006, accessed at University of Helsinki website www.helsinki.fi/iehc2006/papers3/Gray.pdf (accessed 25 Feb. 2014).

—— The making of the Irish Poor Law, 1815–43 (Manchester, 2009).

—— ‘Thomas Chalmers and Irish poverty’ in Frank Ferguson and James McConnel (eds), Ireland and Scotland in the nineteenth century (Dublin, 2009), pp. 93–107.

—— ‘Irish social thought and the relief of poverty, 1847–1880’ in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, xx (2010), pp. 141–56.

Griffin, Brian, The Bulkies: police and crime in Belfast, 1800–1865 (Dublin, 1997).

Harrison, Richard S., Merchants, mystics and philanthropists: 350 years of Cork Quakers (Cork, 2006).

Hatton, Helen E., The largest amount of good: Quaker relief in Ireland, 1654–1921 (Kingston, Ontario and London, 1993).

Hempton, David, ‘Evangelicalism in English and Irish society, 1780–1840’ in Mark A. Noll, David W. Bebbington and George A. Rawlyk (eds), Evangelicalism: comparative studies of popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles, and beyond, 1700–1900 (New York and Oxford, 1994), pp. 156–76.

Hill, Jacqueline, ‘The Protestant response to repeal: the case of the Dublin working-class’ in F.S.L. Lyons and R.A.J. Hawkins (eds), Ireland under the Union: varieties of tension. Essays in honour of T.W. Moody (Oxford, 1980), pp. 35–68.

—— ‘Artisans, sectarianism and politics in Dublin, 1829–48’ in Saothar, vii (1981), pp. 12–27.

—— ‘Dublin after the Union: the age of the ultra-Protestants, 1801–1822’ in Michael Brown, Patrick M. Geoghegan and James Kelly (eds), The Irish Act of Union, 1800: bicentennial essays (Dublin, 2003), pp. 144–56.

Hill, Jacqueline and Colm Lennon (eds), Luxury and austerity, Historical Studies XXI (Dublin, 1999).

Hill, Myrtle, ‘Expressions of faith: Protestantism in nineteenth-century Tyrone’ in Charles Dillon and Henry A. Jeffries (eds), Tyrone: history and society (Dublin, 2000), pp. 637–63.

Hilton, Boyd, ‘The role of Providence in evangelical social thought’ in Derek Beales and Geoffrey Best (eds), History, society and the churches: essays in honour of Owen Chadwick (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 215–33.

—— The age of atonement: the influence of evangelicalism on social and economic thought, 1795–1865 (Oxford, 1988).

Himmelfarb, Gertrude, ‘Mayhew’s poor: a problem of identity’ in Victorian Studies, xiv, no. 3 (Mar. 1971), pp. 307–20.

Hindle, G.B., Provision for the relief of the poor in Manchester, 1754–1826 (Manchester, 1975).

(p.284) Hindle, Steve, ‘Dependency, shame and belonging: badging the deserving poor, c.1550–1750’ in Cultural and Social History, i, no. 1 (2004), pp. 6–35.

—— On the parish? The micro-politics of poor relief in rural England c.1550–1750 (Oxford, 2004).

Hitchcock, David, Vagrancy in English culture and society, 1650–1750 (London, 2016).

Hitchcock, Tim, ‘Begging on the streets of eighteenth-century London’ in Journal of British Studies, xliv, no. 3 (July 2005), pp. 478–98.

—— Down and out in eighteenth-century London (London, 2007).

Hitchcock, Tim and Robert Shoemaker, London lives: poverty, crime and the making of the modern city, 1690–1800 (Cambridge, 2015).

Holmes, Andrew R., ‘The experience and understanding of religious revival in Ulster Presbyterianism, c.1800–1930’ in IHS, xxxiv, no. 136 (Nov. 2002), pp. 361–85.

—— The shaping of Ulster Presbyterian belief and practice, 1770–1840 (Oxford, 2006).

Holmes, R.F.G., Our Irish Presbyterian heritage (n.p. [Belfast], 1985).

Hufton, Olwen H., The poor of eighteenth-century France, 1750–1789 (Oxford, 1974).

Hughes, S.C., The church of S. Werburgh, Dublin (Dublin, 1889).

Humphreys, R., Sin, organized charity and the Poor Law in Victorian England (Basingstoke, 1995).

Hunt, Tristram, Building Jerusalem: the rise and fall of the Victorian city (London, 2005).

Innes, Joanna, ‘The “mixed economy of welfare” in early modern England: assessments of the options from Hale to Malthus (c.1683–1803)’ in Martin Daunton (ed.), Charity, self-interest and welfare in the English past (London, 1996), pp. 139–80.

Innes, Joanna and Arthur Burns, ‘Introduction’ in Arthur Burns and Joanna Innes (eds), Rethinking the age of reform: Britain 1780–1850 (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 1–70.

Irwin, Clarke H., A history of Presbyterianism in Dublin and the south and west of Ireland (London, 1890).

Jones, Colin, ‘Some recent trends in the history of charity’ in Martin Daunton (ed.), Charity, self-interest and welfare in the English past (London, 1996), pp. 51–63.

Jones, D.J.V., ‘“A dead loss to the community”: the criminal vagrant in mid-nineteenth-century Wales’ in Welsh History Review, viii (1976–7), pp. 312–44.

Jones, E.L., ‘The agricultural labour market in England, 1793–1872’ in Economic History Review, new series, xvii, no. 2 (1964), pp. 322–38.

Jordan, Alison, Who cared? Charity in Victorian and Edwardian Belfast (Belfast, [1992]).

Jütte, Robert, Poverty and deviance in early modern Europe (Cambridge, 1994).

Kelly, James, ‘Transportation from Ireland to North America, 1703–1789’ in David Dickson and Cormac Ó Gráda (eds), Refiguring Ireland: essays in honour of L.M. Cullen (Dublin, 2003), pp. 112–35.

—— Sir Richard Musgrave, 1746–1818: Ultra-Protestant ideologue (Dublin, 2009).

—— ‘Charitable societies: their genesis and development, 1720–1800’ in James Kelly and Martyn J. Powell (eds), Clubs and societies in eighteenth-century Ireland (Dublin, 2010), pp. 89–108.

Keogh, Dáire, ‘Evangelising the faithful: Edmund Rice and the reformation of nineteenth-century Irish Catholicism’ in Colm Lennon (ed.), Confraternities and sodalities in Ireland: charity, devotion and sociability (Dublin, 2012), pp. 57–75.

Kerr, Donal [A.], ‘Dublin’s forgotten archbishop: Daniel Murray, 1768–1852’ in James Kelly and Dáire Keogh (eds), History of the Catholic diocese of Dublin (Dublin, 2000), pp. 247–67.

(p.285) King, Steven, Poverty and welfare in England, 1700–1850: a regional perspective (Manchester, 2000).

—— ‘Welfare regimes and welfare regions in Britain and Europe, c.1750s to 1860s’ in Journal of Modern European History, ix, no. 1 (2011), pp. 42–64.

King, Steven and Alannah Tomkins (eds), The poor in England 1700–1850: an economy of makeshifts (Manchester, 2003).

—— ‘Introduction’ in Steven King and Alannah Tomkins (eds), The poor in England 1700–1850: an economy of makeshifts (Manchester, 2003), pp. 1–38.

King, Steven and John Stewart (eds), Welfare peripheries: the development of welfare states in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe (Berne, 2007).

—— ‘Welfare peripheries in modern Europe’ in Steven King and John Stewart (eds), Welfare peripheries: the development of welfare states in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe (Berne, 2007), pp. 9–38.

Laffan, William (ed.), The cries of Dublin &c: drawn from the life by Hugh Douglas Hamilton, 1760 (Dublin, 2003).

Laragy, Georgina, ‘Poor relief in the south of Ireland, 1850–1921’ in Virginia Crossman and Peter Gray (eds), Poverty and welfare in Ireland, 1838–1948 (Dublin, 2011), pp. 53–66.

Latimer, W.T., ‘The old session book of the Presbyterian congregation at Dundonald, Co. Down’ in Ulster Journal of Archaeology, second series, iii, no. 4 (July 1897), pp. 227–32.

Lavelle, Ruth and Paul Huggard, ‘The parish poor of St. Mark’s’ in David Dickson (ed.), The gorgeous mask: Dublin, 1700–1850 (Dublin, 1987), pp. 86–97.

Law Reform Commission, Report on vagrancy and related matters (Dublin, 1985).

Lawrence, Paul, ‘The Vagrancy Act (1824) and the persistence of pre-emptive policing in England since 1750’ in British Journal of Criminology, lvii, no. 3 (2017), pp. 513–31.

Lecky, William Edward Hartpole, A history of Ireland in the eighteenth century (5 vols, London, 1913–19).

Lennon, Colm, ‘Dives and Lazarus in sixteenth-century Ireland’ in Jacqueline Hill and Colm Lennon (eds), Luxury and austerity, Historical Studies XXI (Dublin, 1999), pp. 46–65.

—— (ed.), Confraternities and sodalities in Ireland: charity, devotion and sociability (Dublin, 2012).

Lindberg, Carter, ‘“There should be no beggars among Christians”: Karlstadt, Luther, and the origins of Protestant poor relief’ in Church History, xlvi, no. 3 (Sept. 1977), pp. 313–34.

Lucey, Donnacha Seán, ‘Poor relief in the west of Ireland, 1861–1911’ in Virginia Crossman and Peter Gray (eds), Poverty and welfare in Ireland, 1838–1948 (Dublin, 2011), pp. 37–51.

Luddy, Maria, Women and philanthropy in nineteenth-century Ireland (Cambridge, 1995).

—— “‘Abandoned women and bad characters”: prostitution in nineteenth-century Ireland’ in Women’s History Review, vi, no. 4 (1997), pp. 485–504.

—— ‘Religion, philanthropy and the state in late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century Ireland’ in Hugh Cunningham and Joanna Innes (eds), Charity, philanthropy and reform from the 1690s to 1850 (Basingstoke, 1998), pp. 148–67.

—— Prostitution and Irish society, 1800–1940 (Cambridge, 2007).

Luddy, Maria and Cliona Murphy (eds), Women surviving (Dublin, 1990).

(p.286) McCabe, Ciarán, ‘The early years of the Strangers’ Friend Society, Dublin: 1790–1845’ in Bulletin of the Methodist Historical Society of Ireland, xix (2014), pp. 65–93.

McCartney, Donal, The dawning of democracy: Ireland 1800–1870 (Dublin, 1987).

Mac Donagh, Oliver, Ireland: the Union and its aftermath (rev. edn, London, 1977).

McDowell, R.B., ‘Ireland on the eve of the Famine’ in R. Dudley Edwards and Desmond Williams (eds), The Great Famine: studies in Irish history, 1845–52 (1956; Dublin, 1994), pp. 3–86.

McHugh, Ned, Drogheda before the Famine: urban poverty in the shadow of privilege, 1826–45 (Dublin, 1998).

McKinney, William Fee, ‘Old session books of Carnmoney, Co. Antrim’ in Ulster Journal of Archaeology, second series, vi, no. 1 (Jan. 1900), pp. 6–11.

McLellan, David, The thought of Karl Marx: an introduction (3rd edn, London, 1995).

Mac Lochlainn, Antain, ‘The Famine in Gaelic tradition’ in Irish Review, no. 17/18 (Winter 1995), pp. 90–108.

McLoughlin, Dympna, ‘Workhouses and Irish female paupers, 1840–70’ in Maria Luddy and Cliona Murphy (eds), Women surviving (Dublin, 1990), pp. 117–47.

McNeill, Mary, The life and times of Mary Ann McCracken, 1770–1866: a Belfast panorama (Belfast, 1988).

Malcolm, Elizabeth, The Irish policeman, 1822–1922: a life (Dublin, 2006).

Mangion, Carmen, ‘Faith, philanthropy and the aged poor in nineteenth-century England and Wales’ in European Review of History–Revue européenne d’histoire, xix, no. 4 (Aug. 2012), pp. 515–30.

Maxwell, Constantia, The stranger in Ireland from the reign of Elizabeth to the Great Famine (London, 1954).

Mitchison, Rosalind, ‘The making of the old Scottish Poor Law’ in Past & Present, no. 63 (May 1974), pp. 58–93.

—— ‘Who were the poor in Scotland, 1690–1830?’ in Rosalind Mitchison and Peter Roebuck (eds), Economy and society in Scotland and Ireland 1500–1939 (Edinburgh, 1988), pp. 140–8.

—— The Old Poor Law in Scotland: the experience of poverty, 1574–1845 (Edinburgh, 2000).

Mitchison, Rosalind and Leah Leneman, Sexuality and social control: Scotland 1660–1760 (Oxford, 1989).

Moffitt, Miriam, The Society for Irish Church Missions to the Roman Catholics, 1849–1950 (Manchester, 2010).

Morris, R.J., ‘Voluntary societies and British urban elites, 1780–1850: an analysis’ in Historical Journal, xxvi, no. 1 (Mar. 1983), pp. 95–118.

Moylan, Thomas King, ‘Vagabonds and sturdy beggars, I: poverty, pigs and pestilence in medieval Dublin’ in Dublin Historical Record, i, no. 1 (Mar. 1938), pp. 11–18.

Munck, Ronnie, ‘The formation of the working class in Belfast, 1788–1881’ in Saothar, xi (1986), pp. 75–89.

Murphy, James H., Irish novelists and the Victorian age (Oxford, 2011).

Murray, J.P., Galway: a medico-social history (Galway, [c.1993]).

Neal, Frank, ‘The English Poor Law, the Irish migrant and the laws of settlement and removal, 1819–1879’ in D. George Boyce and Roger Swift (eds), Problems and perspectives in Irish history since 1800: essays in honour of Patrick Buckland (Dublin, 2004), pp. 95–116.

(p.287) Noll, Mark A., David W. Bebbington and George A. Rawlyk (eds), Evangelicalism: comparative studies of popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles, and beyond, 1700–1900 (New York and Oxford, 1994).

O’Brien, Gerard, ‘The new Poor Law in pre-Famine Ireland: a case history’ in Irish Economic and Social History, xii (1985), pp. 33–49.

Ó Cearbhaill, Seán E., ‘A memory that lived and a charity that died: Edmund Rice and the Mendicity Institute’ in Peter S. Carroll (ed.), A man raised up: recollections and reflections on Venerable Edmund Rice presented in 1994 on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of his death (Dublin, 1994), pp. 159–71.

Ó Ciosáin, Niall, ‘Introduction’ in Maureen Comber (ed.), Poverty before the Famine, County Clare, 1835 (Ennis, 1996), pp. iii–vii.

—— ‘Boccoughs and God’s poor: deserving and undeserving poor in Irish popular culture’ in Tadhg Foley and Seán Ryder (eds), Ideology and Ireland in the nineteenth century (Dublin, 1998), pp. 93–9.

—— Print and popular culture in Ireland 1750–1850 (new edn, Dublin, 2010).

—— Ireland in official print culture, 1800–1850: a new reading of the Poor Inquiry (Oxford, 2014).

O’Connor, John, The workhouses of Ireland: the fate of Ireland’s poor (Dublin, 1995).

Ó Gráda, Cormac, ‘Malthus and the pre-Famine economy’ in Hermathena, no. 135 (Winter 1983), pp. 75–95.

—— The Great Irish Famine (Basingstoke and London, 1989).

—— Ireland before and after the Famine: explorations in economic history, 1800–1925 (2nd edn, Manchester, 1993).

—— Ireland: a new economic history 1780–1939 (Oxford, 1994).

Ollerenshaw, Philip, ‘Industry, 1820–1914’ in Liam Kennedy and Philip Ollerenshaw (eds), An economic history of Ulster, 1820–1940 (Manchester, 1985), pp. 62–108.

O’Mahony, Michelle, Famine in Cork city: famine life at Cork union workhouse (Cork, 2005).

O’Neill, Timothy P., ‘The Catholic Church and relief of the poor 1815–45’ in Archivium Hibernicum, xxxi (1973), pp. 132–45.

—— ‘Fever and public health in pre-Famine Ireland’, in Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, ciii (1973), pp. 1–34.

—— ‘Poverty in Ireland 1815–45’ in Folk-Life, xi (1973), pp. 22–33.

—— ‘A bad year in the Liberties’ in Elgy Gillespie (ed.), The Liberties of Dublin (2nd edn, Dublin, 1974), pp. 76–83.

O’Toole, David, ‘The employment crisis of 1826’ in David Dickson (ed.), The gorgeous mask: Dublin, 1700–1850 (Dublin, 1987), pp. 157–71.

Palmer, Stanley H., Police and protest in England and Ireland 1780–1850 (Cambridge, 1988).

Parthun, Mary Lassance, ‘Protestant and Catholic attitudes towards poverty: the Irish community and the development of the Saint Vincent de Paul Society in nineteenth-century Toronto’ in Robert O’Driscoll and Lorna Reynolds (eds), The untold story: the Irish in Canada (2 vols, Toronto, 1988), ii, pp. 853–69.

Pickstone, John V., ‘Dearth, dirt and fever epidemics: rewriting the history of British “public health”, 1780–1850’ in Terence Ranger and Paul Slack (eds), Epidemics and ideas: essays on the historical perception of pestilence (Cambridge, 1999), pp. 125–48.

(p.288) Post, John D., The last great subsistence crisis in the western world (Baltimore, MD and London, 1977).

Pounds, N.J.G., A history of the English parish: the culture of religion from Augustine to Victoria (Cambridge, 2000).

Prochaska, Frank, The voluntary impulse: philanthropy in modern Britain (London, 1988).

Preston, Margaret H., Charitable words: women, philanthropy and the language of charity in nineteenth-century Dublin (Westport, CT and London, 2004).

Prunty, Jacinta, Dublin slums, 1800–1925: a study in urban geography (Dublin, 1998).

—— ‘Mobility among women in nineteenth-century Dublin’ in David J. Siddle (ed.), Migration, mobility and modernization (Liverpool, 2000), pp. 131–63.

—— ‘Battle plans and battlegrounds: Protestant mission activity in the Dublin slums, 1840s–1880s’ in Crawford Gribben and Andrew R. Holmes (eds), Protestant millennialism, evangelicalism and Irish society, 1790–2005 (Basingstoke, 2006), pp. 119–43.

—— The monasteries, Magdalen asylums and reformatory schools of Our Lady of Charity in Ireland 1853–1973 (Dublin, 2017).

Pullan, Brian, ‘Catholics and the poor in early modern Europe’ in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, xxvi (1976), pp. 15–34.

—— ‘Charity and poor relief in early modern Italy’ in Martin Daunton (ed.), Charity, self-interest and welfare in the English past (London, 1996), pp. 65–89.

—— ‘Catholics, Protestants and the poor in early-modern Europe’ in Journal of Interdisciplinary History, xxxv, no. 3 (Winter 2005), pp. 441–56.

Rack, Henry D., Reasonable enthusiast: John Wesley and the rise of Methodism (London, 1989).

Raughter, Rosemary, ‘Pious occupations: female activism and the Catholic revival in eighteenth-century Ireland’ in Rosemary Raughter (ed.), Religious women and their history: breaking the silence (Dublin, 2005), pp. 25–49.

Roberts, M.J.D., ‘Reshaping the gift relationship: the London Mendicity Society and the suppression of begging in England, 1818–1869’ in International Review of Social History, xxxvi (1991), pp. 201–31.

—— Making English morals: voluntary association and moral reform in England, 1787–1886 (Cambridge, 2004).

Robins, Joseph, The lost children: a study of charity children in Ireland, 1700–1900 (Dublin, 1980).

—— The miasma: epidemic and panic in nineteenth-century Ireland (Dublin, 1995).

Rose, Lionel, ‘Rogues and vagabonds’: vagrant underworld in Britain, 1815–1985 (London and New York, 1988).

Samuel, Raphael, ‘Comers and goers’ in H.J. Dyos and Michael Wolff (eds), The Victorian city: images and realities, vol. 1, Past and present, and numbers of people (London, 1976), pp. 123–60.

Seaby, W.A. and T.G.F. Paterson, ‘Ulster beggars’ badges’ in Ulster Archaeological Journal, third series, xxxiii (1970), pp. 95–106.

Sharpe, J.A., Crime in early modern England, 1550–1750 (London and New York, 1984).

Shore, Heather, Artful dodgers: youth crime in early-nineteenth-century London (Woodbridge, 2002).

—— ‘Crime, criminal networks and the survival strategies of the poor in early eighteenth-century London’ in Steven King and Alannah Tomkins (eds), The poor in England 1700–1850: an economy of makeshifts (Manchester, 2003), pp. 137–65.

(p.289) Slack, Paul, ‘Vagrants and vagrancy in England, 1598–1664’ in Economic History Review, xxvii, no. 3 (Aug. 1974), pp. 360–79.

Strain, R.W.M., Belfast and its Charitable Society: a story of urban social development (London, 1961).

Tobias, J.J., Crime and industrial society in the nineteenth century (Harmondsworth, 1972).

Thompson, F.M.L., ‘Social control in Victorian Britain’ in Economic History Review, 2nd series, xxxiv, no. 2 (May 1981), pp. 189–208.

Vaughan, W.E. (ed.), A new history of Ireland, vol. 5, Ireland under the Union, I, 1801–70 (Oxford, 1989).

Wallach Scott, Joan, ‘A statistical representation of work: La statistique de l’industrie à Paris, 1847–1848’ in Joan Wallach Scott, Gender and the politics of history (New York, 1988), pp. 113–38.

Walsh, John, ‘John Wesley and the urban poor’ in Revue française de civilisation britannique, vi, no. 3 (1991), pp. 17–30.

Whelan, Irene, The Bible war in Ireland: the ‘Second Reformation’ and the polarization of Protestant–Catholic relations, 1800–1840 (Dublin, 2005).

—— ‘The Bible gentry: evangelical religion, aristocracy, and the new moral order in the early nineteenth century’ in Crawford Gribben and Andrew R. Holmes (eds), Protestant millennialism, evangelicalism and Irish society, 1790–2005 (Basingstoke, 2006), pp. 52–82.

Woods, Audrey, Dublin outsiders: a history of the Mendicity Institution, 1818–1998 (Dublin, 1998).

Woolf, Stuart, The poor in western Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (London and New York, 1986).

Wright, Jonathan Jeffrey, The ‘natural leaders’ and their world: politics, culture and society in Belfast, c.1801–1832 (Liverpool, 2012).

Young, G.M., Portrait of an age: Victorian England (annotated edn, London, 1977).

Unpublished Theses

Begadon, Cormac, ‘Laity and clergy in the Catholic renewal of Dublin, c.1750–1830’ (PhD thesis, Maynooth University, 2009).

Dalgleish, Andrew J., ‘Voluntary associations and the middle class in Edinburgh, 1780–1820’ (PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh, 1991).

Dudley, Rowena, ‘Dublin parishes 1660–1729: the Church of Ireland parishes and their role in the civic administration of the city’ (PhD thesis, 2 vols, University of Dublin, 1995).

Harrison, Richard S., ‘Dublin Quakers in business 1800–1850’ (MLitt thesis, 2 vols, University of Dublin, 1987).

McCabe, Ciarán, ‘Begging and alms-giving in urban Ireland, 1815–1850’ (PhD thesis, Maynooth University, 2015).

Ní Chearbhaill, Máire Brighid, ‘The Society of St. Vincent de Paul in Dublin, 1926–1975’ (PhD thesis, Maynooth University, 2008).

Tumilty, Kathryn, ‘The Church of Ireland and the Famine in Ulster, 1845–52’ (PhD thesis, Queen’s University Belfast, 2009). (p.290)