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Begging, Charity and Religion in Pre-Famine Ireland$

Ciarán McCabe

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9781786941572

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.3828/liverpool/9781786941572.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM LIVERPOOL SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.liverpool.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Liverpool University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in LSO for personal use.date: 29 June 2022

(p.291) Index

(p.291) Index

Source:
Begging, Charity and Religion in Pre-Famine Ireland
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press

References to images printed in the book are presented in bold.

Abbeyshrule, County Longford 59, 80
Aberdeen 158
Ahoghill, County Antrim 41, 89, 239
Aikenhead, Mary 18, 187–8, 203–6, 208, 216–17
Alms-giving 8, 34–40, 56–61, 62, 72, 97–100, 201–3, 207, 212, 218, 221–2, 228–9, 238–48, 250–1, 253, 258
indiscriminate, evils of 73, 85, 91–2, 98–9, 170, 190–8, 228–30, 256–7
Amsterdam 160
Antrim county 8, 44, 57, 86, 154
Antrim town 156, 157, 168, 239
Ardee, County Louth 134
Armagh town 155, 157, 161, 245
artisans 4, 7, 49–50, 54, 62, 163, 258
Association for the Suppression of Mendicity in Dublin see Dublin Mendicity Society
associational culture 15–16, 149–50, 182, 259
Athlone, County Westmeath 42–3, 74, 87
Athy, County Kildare 110–12
Atthill, Dr Lombe 136
Aughavale, County Mayo 87
Bagnelstown, County Carlow 111
Ballina, County Mayo 86, 87
Ballinasloe, County Galway 95
Ballsbridge, County Dublin 206
Ballybofey, County Donegal 86
Ballycahill, County Tipperary 93
Ballycarry (Broadisland), County Antrim 242–3
Ballycastle, County Antrim 156, 157, 161
Ballydehob, County Cork 31
Ballymahon, County Longford 34, 59, 80, 86, 87
Ballymena, County Antrim 41, 91, 140, 155, 157, 168, 213
Ballymoat, County Sligo 44
Ballymoney, County Antrim 41, 89, 91, 135, 156, 157, 171, 182
Ballyshannon, County Donegal 91, 110, 111, 156, 157, 167–8
‘bang beggars’ 166
Bangor, County Down 131, 156, 157
Banim, John and Michael 61, 123
Barker, Dr Francis 107, 109
Barnard, Toby 133, 139
Barrow, John 38
Barry, Dr John Milner 118
Bath 151–3, 160
Bavaria 113
beggars badging of 25, 127–8, 132, 133, 134–8, 144–5, 223–4, 240, 242–4
begging locations 36–42, 85–92, 192, 207
‘boccoughs’ 121–3
children as beggars 36–7, 38, 39, 42, 46–8, 50, 97, 137, 153, 183, 254
crime and 23–30, 46–8, 82–4
defining 21–63, 64–5, 254
(p.292) dwellings and sleeping arrangements vi, 35, 54–5
gendered roles and 42–5, 60–1
letter-writing and 33–4
literary representations of 39, 43, 53, 60–1, 118–19, 120, 122–3, 192–3
natural right to beg and 97–100, 196–8
‘pauper professions’ and 30–4
positive views towards vi, 95–6, 97–100, 196–8
previous occupations of 32, 48–54
‘professional beggars’ 21–2, 33–4, 38–40, 52–4, 121–3, 229
quantifying numbers of 64–94, 254–5
religion of 55–6
‘residuum’ of 52–4
shame of 43, 60–1, 254
shopkeepers and 57–8, 63, 85–92, 96, 114–18, 162, 165, 169, 180, 183, 208–9, 239, 255, 258
spread of disease and 36, 95, 105–14, 115–16, 138–41, 152–3, 255
tropes of 8–9, 234–7
ubiquity of 1, 71, 100–2, 255
visibility of 98, 103–5, 244–5, 255
Beggar’s Bush, County Dublin 206
Beier, A.L. 24, 81
Belfast, County Antrim 4, 9, 15, 48, 74, 76, 85, 136, 141, 142, 150, 151, 152, 155, 157, 158, 209–10, 232, 234, 236–8, 245–6, 249–50
Belfast Charitable Society 136, 150, 166, 213, 249–50
Ladies’ Committee 249–50, 257
Belfast House of Industry (mendicity society) 15, 117, 153, 157, 161, 164–5, 166, 171, 177, 179, 183, 213, 223
Belfast News-Letter 48, 85, 117, 235
Bennet, Thomas 212
Beresford, Archbishop John (Church of Ireland) 162
Besnard, John 7
Bianconi cars 37–8
Bicheno, James Ebenezer 35, 119
Billy, County Antrim 89
Binns, Jonathan 181, 233
Bird, Michael 93
Birmingham 153
Blake, Anthony Richard 169, 199, 211
Blake, Bishop Michael (Roman Catholic) 214
Board of Charitable Bequests 214
‘boccoughs’ see beggars
Boileau, John Peter 70
Bonsall, John Ouseley 246
Booth, Charles 70
Bourne, William Sturges 68
Brenan, Mr (officer of health) 128
Brereton, Dr David 138
Brice, Rev. Edward 242
Brighton 225
Brodigan, Thomas 179
Bristol 153, 245–6
Brown, Bartholomew 31
Browning, Richard 40, 52
Brownrigg, William 28
Bryan, James Butler 84
Bumlin parish, County Roscommon 240
Buncrana, County Donegal vi, 89
Burke, Joseph 178
Bushmills, County Antrim 155, 157
Butler, Archbishop James (Roman Catholic) 188
Byrne, Anne Marie (beggar) 239
Caledon, County Tyrone 156, 157, 162
Caledon, Earl of (Du Pre Alexander) 162
Callan, County Kilkenny 208
Calvin, John 242
Cambridge 181
Carleton, William 39, 43, 53–4, 60–1, 118, 120, 123, 192
Carlile, Rev. James 192, 232
Carlow town 86, 87, 155, 157, 180–1
Carlyle, Thomas 66
Carne, County Wexford 39
Carrickfergus, County Antrim 41, 86, 89, 91, 119, 155, 157, 161, 168
(p.293) Carrickmacross, County Monaghan 156, 157
Carrol, Mary (vagrant) 140
Casey, John 59
Cassidy, Patrick 100
Castleblaney, County Monaghan 92, 120
Castledermot, County Kildare 87
Catholic Book Society 190
Cavan town 111
Central Board of Health 140–1
Chalmers, Rev. Thomas 18, 192, 222, 229, 231–2, 256
Chapelizod, County Dublin 36
Charitable Association, Dublin 150
Charitable Infirmary, Dublin 214
Charitable Organisation Society (England) 172
Charleville, County Cork 207
Chester 153
Cheyne, Dr John 109
children as beggars see beggars
Christian Brothers 213–14
Christian Examiner 46, 193, 225, 227, 250
Clare county 30, 61, 72, 122
Clarke, Rev. Adam 245
Clifden, County Galway 79–80
Clonakilty, County Cork 122
Clonmel, County Tipperary 45, 89, 155, 157, 164, 173, 180, 212
Coffey (Coffee), John 86
Colchester 153
Coleman, Patrick 202
Coleraine, County Londonderry 86, 90, 91, 105, 113, 155, 157, 161, 166
Colquhoun, Patrick 84
Comyn, Fr Michael 202, 207
Connaught 232, 237
Connolly, Sean J. 12, 215, 237, 255–6, 258
Cooke, Rev. Henry 3, 223, 234
Corballis, John Richard 211
Cork city 7, 37, 52, 58, 74, 76, 86, 88, 118, 121, 122, 130–1, 134, 139–40, 155, 157, 159, 173, 179, 213, 234, 245, 248
Cork Constitution 139
Cork county 7, 37, 52, 58, 74, 76, 119, 122
Cork House of Recovery 118
Cork Street Fever Hospital, Dublin 107, 109
Corlett, Mary 248
Coventry 153
Coyle, John 131
Crawford, John 132
Croker, Thomas Crofton 123
Crolly, Archbishop William (Roman Catholic) 199, 213
Crossman, Virginia 10–12, 17
Cullen, Paul 196n32, 201
Cunningham, John 177
Cunningham, John (historian) 16, 163
Curtis, Pat 61
Dalton, Stephen 239
Daly, Rev. Robert 223, 225–7, 250, 256
D’Arcy, John 80
Daughters of Charity 204, 207
de Beaumount, Gustave 71
de la Cour, Robert 73
Denvir, Bishop Cornelius (Roman Catholic) 209–10, 213
de Paul, St Vincent 204
Derry city 86, 90, 91, 103, 155, 157, 158, 161, 164, 166, 170–1, 175, 179, 183
‘deserving’/‘undeserving’ poor see poor
Dickens, Charles 47
Dickson, David 131, 144
Dobbs, Arthur 72
(p.294) domestic servants 56–7, 77, 183
Doncavey, County Fermanagh 136
Donegal county 33, 86
Doody, James (beggar) 147
Doody, Sarah (beggar) 147
Dorian, Hugh 33
Down county 154
Downpatrick, County Down 111, 155, 157, 170
Doyle, Bishop James (Roman Catholic) 13, 84, 180–1, 188–9, 199
‘Driscoll, Paddy’ 117
Driver, Felix 259
Drogheda, County Louth 15, 22, 37n78, 46, 74, 117, 155, 157, 161, 162, 179, 213, 235
Dr Steevens’ Hospital, Dublin 228
Dublin House of Industry 3, 25–6, 45, 55, 70, 78–9, 108–9, 116, 136–8, 143–4, 150–1, 173, 181, 213, 259
Dublin Mendicity Society 3, 15, 16, 29, 32, 36, 45, 48–52, 54, 56, 58, 61, 62, 78–9, 94, 98, 103–5, 107, 114, 115, 119, 140, 147–8, 151, 152, 158–60, 161, 164–5, 167–9, 171, 173–8, 180–4, 200–2, 211–15, 218, 236
Dublin Penny Journal 120
Dublin Statistical Society 66, 67
Dudley, Rowena 133
Dundalk, County Louth 155, 157
Dungannon, County Tyrone 156, 157
Dungiven and Banagher, County Londonderry 90
Dun Laoghaire (Dunleary/Kingstown), County Dublin 69
Dunleekney, County Carlow 86, 87
Dunluce, County Antrim 135
Durrow, County Kilkenny 111
Dyson, Richard 103
Eccles, Audrey 26
economic trends 4, 50–2
Eden, Sir Frederic 27
Edgar, Rev. John 237
Edinburgh 56, 98, 148, 151–3, 158–9, 160, 172
Elphin, County Roscommon 111
England 3, 22, 30–1, 32, 33, 44, 53, 66, 74, 75, 81, 95, 134–5, 141, 147, 153, 158, 197, 200, 220
Ennis, County Clare 155, 157
Enniscorthy, County Wexford 38, 88
Enniskillen, County Fermanagh 111, 155, 157, 161, 240
Ennistymon, County Clare 86
evangelicalism 219–23, 235–7, 250, 256, 259
Fanning, Patrick 92
Farrell, Anne (beggar) 49
Farrell, Michael 64
Ferguson, Robert A. 176
Fitzgerald, Archdeacon Michael (Roman Catholic) 189, 196–7, 216
Flanagan, Fr Matthew 213
Fleming, Fr Christopher 202
Flinn, William 79
Flood, Henry 97
Forrest, Alan 194
‘Forty bags’ 120
France 57, 81, 108, 204, 211
Freeman’s Journal 106, 113, 115, 180
Fry, Elizabeth 180
Fuchs, Rachel 10, 17
Fullerton, Ellen (beggar) 49
Gahan, Fr William 202
Galway, Dr 110, 203
Galway city 15, 40, 56, 112, 117, 135, 146–7, 155, 157, 161, 163, 236
Galway county 15, 40, 56, 212–13
Gamble, John 95, 98, 113, 120, 239
Geary, Laurence M. 14, 43, 94, 106, 254
Germany 108
Gillespie, Raymond 129, 237
Glasgow 158
(p.295) Glenarm, County Antrim 89
Glenavy, County Antrim 89
Gloucester 158
Glynn (parish), County Antrim 57
Goodison, Henry Gilbert 64
Gorey, County Wexford 86, 88
Gorman, Timothy 61
Goulburn, Henry 139
Graham, Rev. John 191–2
Granard, County Longford 86, 87
Grattan, Henry (Junior) 180
Gray, Peter 5, 14, 73, 199, 228
Guinness family 163
Gurney, John Joseph 180
Hall, Anna Maria 70, 122
Hallam, Henry 68
Hamburg 151, 153, 158–9, 160, 260
Hamilton, Hugh Douglas 32
Hancock, William Neilson 68
Hardwicke Fever Hospital, Dublin 115
Harty, Sir Robert 215
Harty, Dr William 110
Haughton, James 68
hawking 30–3
Haywood, Eliza 57
Headford, County Galway 34, 99
Heron, Rev. 168
‘Hibernicus’ 227–8
Hill, George 179
Hill, Jacqueline 148n2
Hillsborough, County Down 156, 157
Hilton, Boyd 219, 222
Hindle, Steve 135
Hitchcock, David 26
Hitchcock, Tim 27, 30–1, 49–50, 81–2, 102
Hollywood, County Down 156, 157
Homan, Rev. William 74
houses of industry 3, 7, 18, 23, 25–6, 45, 55, 107, 137, 143, 150–1, 153, 164, 172–3, 182, 224 see also Dublin House of Industry
Hudson, Mr (Dublin Mendicity Society) 159
Hue and Cry 139
Hufton, Olwen 9, 194
Hunt, Mr (Kinsale Mendicity Society) 159
Hunt, Tristram 259
Ignatius of Loyola 214
Inch, County Tipperary 93
Inglis, Henry 55, 162, 181
Ingram, John K. 68
Innishannon, County Cork 99
inquiries into social conditions Poor Inquiry (1833–6) 6, 8, 21–2, 28, 34, 40–1, 42, 46, 52, 54, 59, 64, 69, 73–5, 76, 79, 84–5, 85–91, 99, 116, 120, 122, 165, 179–80, 199, 202, 206, 214, 225, 230–1, 233–4, 239, 246, 256, 258
Select Committee on the State of Ireland (1825) 73, 195
Select Committee on the State of the Poor (1830) 13, 27–8, 68, 84, 180–1, 229
Select Committee on Tithes (1832) 231
Irish Evangelical Society 235
Irishtown, Dublin 206
Italy 107–8
Jews in Dublin 168
Johnston, Dr 110–12
Jones, Colin 13, 207, 255
Jordan, Alison 16
Jütte, Robert 24, 40
Keady, County Armagh 41
Kells, County Meath 134
Kelly, James 15
Kendal 153
Kennedy, Neal 171
Kerr, Donal 203
Kerry county 110
Kilbrogan, County Cork 86
Kilchreest, County Galway 55, 59, 100, 122
Kilcock, County Kildare 87
Kilcullen, County Kildare 28
Kildysart, County Clare 59, 88
Kilkee, County Clare 34, 39–40, 202, 207
(p.296) Kilkenny city 41, 74, 107, 135, 155, 157, 158
Kilkenny county 37
Killaloe, County Clare 61, 69, 88
Killarney, County Kerry 37n78
Killeen, Lord (Arthur James Plunkett) 180
Kilmood, County Down 156, 157
Kilmore, County Armagh 156, 157
Kilrea, County Londonderry 90
King, Steven 103
King, Archbishop William (Church of Ireland) 99, 223
King’s Hospital, Dublin 110
Kingston 153
Kingston James Bart, John 177
Kinsale, County Cork 86, 88, 155, 157, 159
kinship 12–13
Kirkionriola, County Antrim 156, 157
Knockbreda, County Down 155, 157
Knox, John 242
Knox, Rev. John (Scottish reformer) 177
Kohl, Johann Georg 37
Ladies’ Association of Charity of St Vincent de Paul 213
Laffan, William 102
landholding 5
Langton, William 68
Larcom, Thomas 68
Larne, County Antrim 89, 156, 157
La Touche, James Digges 98
Lawson, James Anthony 66
Layde, County Antrim 89
Le Fanu, W.R. 218
Legislation 1665 Act for Provision of Ministers in Cities and Corporate Towns (St Andrew’s Act) 133
1774 Badging of Poor Act 30
1819 Fever Act 138–41
1824 Vagrancy Act (England) 29
1833 Church Temporalities Act 132, 145
1847 Vagrancy Act 30, 103
1851 Medical Charities Act 30
1864 Cess Abolition Act 145
1866 Sanitary Act 141 see also Poor Law
Le Poer Trench, Archbishop Power (Church of Ireland) 86
Letterkenny, County Donegal 85, 89
Lifford, County Donegal 85
Limerick city 55, 74, 155, 157, 161, 165, 171, 173, 179, 196, 236
Limerick county 37, 69, 113
Lisburn, County Antrim 141, 155, 157, 247
Liverpool 153, 245
Loghlin, Biddy (beggar) 147
Loghlin, James (beggar) 147
London 3, 22, 30–1, 32, 33, 49, 65, 70, 81–2, 108, 142, 159, 235
London Mendicity Society 33, 68, 70, 108, 151–2, 158, 160, 167, 172
Longfield, Mountiford 67
Longford county 111
Longford town 44, 86, 88
Loreto Sisters 203
Lough Derg, County Donegal 39, 120
Loughlin, Terence (beggar) 54–5
Loughrea, County Galway 111
Luddy, Maria 12, 103
Lurgan, County Antrim 156, 157
McAuley, Sr Catherine 207
McCarthy, Mr (Drogheda constable) 46
McCartney, Donal 55
McClelland, Mr (Poor Law guardian) 176
McCracken, Mary Ann 249–50, 257
McCrea, Rev. J.B. 7–8
MacDomhnaill, Aodh 209–10
MacDonagh, Oliver 131
McDowell, R.B. 150
McHugh, Ned 16
Mackay, John 177
Maclise, Daniel 38, 39
McNally, Edward 21
McNamara, J. 120
McTier, James 177
(p.297) McTier, Martha 238
Macroom, County Cork 40, 65, 88
Maghera, County Londonderry 90
Magherafelt, County Londonderry 90
Maher, Catherine (beggar) 49
Mallow, County Cork 73, 110, 111
Malthus, Rev. Thomas 228–30, 250, 256
Malton, James 101, 102
Manchester 66, 68, 245–6
Mansergh St George, R.J. 34
Mansion House Relief Committee 214
Mara (O’Meara), Valentine 92
Martin, Matthew 65, 81–2, 160
Marx, Karl 53
Mathew, Fr Theobald 213
Mayhew, Henry 22, 32, 33
Mayo county 21, 35, 45
medical practitioners 95–6, 107, 109–13, 115, 119, 121, 138–41
Mehan, Mr (Poor Law guardian) 176
middle-class morals 1, 14–15, 103, 148, 149–50, 182–4, 205, 214, 216, 249, 257
military 42, 95, 152
Milltown Malbay, County Clare 59, 88
Mitchell, W. 79, 116
Moate, County Westmeath 154, 156, 157
mobility of population 2–3, 4, 78, 110
Modreeny, County Tipperary 74
Monaghan county 239
Monaghan town 98, 155, 157
Monks, Fr James 213
Moore, County Roscommon 120
Moore, John 212
Morpeth, Lord (George William Frederick Howard, seventh earl of Carlisle) 29, 178
Morris, Robert J. 15, 160, 182
Moville, County Donegal 89
Mullally, Teresa 204
Mullingar, County Westmeath 37, 88, 136
Mullins, Rev. Patrick 122
Multyfarnham, County Westmeath 88
Munich 151, 158, 160
Murray, Archbishop Daniel (Roman Catholic) 18, 187–8, 195, 199, 201–5, 212–16
Naas, County Kildare 28, 58, 86, 87
Naper, J.W.L. 180
Napoleonic Wars 2, 107, 152
Newmarket-on-Fergus, County Clare 40, 88
New Ross, County Wexford 155, 157
Newry, County Down 155, 157, 158, 214
Newtown Limavady, County Londonderry 90
Newtownards, County Down 155, 157
New York 160
Nicholls, George 28, 29, 71–2, 74–5, 91–2, 93, 119, 178n136, 231
O’Brien, Mary (beggar) vi
O’Carolan, Turlough 33
Ó Ciosáin, Niall 6, 12, 14, 17, 80, 99, 119–20, 123, 207, 234–5
O’Connell, Daniel 208, 211, 221, 234–5, 237, 256
O’Connor, Dr Denis Charles 121
O’Connor, Rev. Thomas 100
O’Conor Don, Denis 41
officers of health 128, 138–41
Ó Gráda, Cormac 45
O’Hanlon, Rev. William Murphy 48
Omagh, County Tyrone 111, 156, 157
O’Malley, Fr Thaddeus 102, 168, 199–201, 213, 216
O’Neill, Eliza 41
O’Neill, Timothy P. 11, 253, 258
Ost, Edward 79
Ó Súilleabháin, Amhlaoibh 208–9
(O’)Sullivan, Thomas 92
Otway, Rev. Caesar 35, 36, 39, 193, 225
Oxford 103, 153, 228
Ozanam, Frederic 211
(p.298) Page, Frederick 179
Palmer, James 26
Paris 160
parish vestries 14–15, 18, 127–45, 240, 259
Parsonstown (Birr), King’s County (County Offaly) 111, 155, 157
Peel, Sir Robert 108, 115, 151
Perceval, Dr Robert 115
Philipstown (Daingean), King’s County 233
policing 23–30, 37, 64, 116, 139, 167
parish constables, watchmen and beadles 97, 141–4
political economy 18, 222–3, 228–32
poor
pauperism as distinct from poverty 8, 100–2, 190, 200, 222, 232
‘deserving’/‘undeserving’ poor 6–9, 23, 42, 119–23, 134–8, 147–8, 149–50, 163–4, 201–3, 206–8, 212, 216, 226–7, 230–2, 234, 240–4, 246, 251, 256–8
voices of the 16–17
Poor Law Irish Poor Law (1838) 14, 29, 45, 75, 92, 93, 133, 168–78, 182, 197, 207, 231–2, 255
New English Poor Law (1834) 6, 72, 75, 168, 172, 230, 232
Old English Poor Law (1601 and 1662) 6, 16, 127, 133, 197
‘Old Irish Poor Law’ 15
Poor Law debates and discourses 6–11, 14, 67–8, 71, 84, 102, 127, 169, 198–201, 223, 233, 260
Poor Law workhouses see workhouses
population 2
Portaferry, County Down 156, 157
Portarlington, Queen’s County (County Laois) 154, 156, 157
Post, John D. 107
potatoes 5, 31, 34–5, 44, 55, 61, 85
Powerscourt, County Wicklow 222–3, 225, 256
Presentation Sisters 189, 204
Preston, Margaret 12
Price, Rev. 159
prostitution 9, 13n43, 30, 46, 48, 67, 103, 165
Protestant approaches to mendicancy and alms-giving 11–12, 18, 34–5, 41, 190, 218–51
Church of Ireland and Anglicans 7–8, 55–6, 77, 80, 120, 127–45, 167–8, 191–3, 218–19, 223–31, 240–1, 251, 257
Methodism and Methodists 148, 244–7, 251, 257
Presbyterianism and Presbyterians 3, 12, 55–6, 95, 129, 131, 154, 168, 171, 182, 192, 222–3, 231–2, 235–8, 239, 241–4, 249, 258
kirk sessions 241–4, 251, 257
Society of Friends and Quakers 150, 180–1, 211n100, 232–4, 247–9, 257
Protestant Colonisation Society 7
Prunty, Jacinta 16, 67, 69, 103, 108, 115, 160
Pullan, Brian 8, 12, 188
Queen’s County 140
Quin, Mary (beggar) 48
Raiftearí, Antaine 33
Randolph, Francis 160
Rasharkin, County Antrim 41, 89
Rathangan, County Kildare 87
Reddy, Dr 140
Religious Sisters of Charity 18, 187, 203–6, 208, 213, 216–17
Revans, John 73–4
Rice, Brother Edmund 213–14
Rice, Thomas Spring 68
Ringsend, Dublin 206
Riordan, Mr (workhouse master) 173
Roberts, M.J.D. 152
Robinson, Martha 248
Rogers, George 119
(p.299) Roman Catholic approaches to mendicancy and alms-giving 11–12, 40–1, 55–6, 120, 168–9, 187–217, 227–8, 234–8, 255–8
Roscommon county 122
Roscommon town 41–2, 112, 113
Roscrea, County Tipperary 155, 157
Rose, Lionel 172
Royle, Stephen A. 237
Sadleir, Rev. Franc 215
Saintfield, County Down 156, 157
Salisbury 153
Scotland 29, 40, 44, 134–5, 200, 230–2, 240, 242–4
vagrancy laws 29
Scott, Sir Walter 122
scripture, direct influence of 1, 7–8, 100, 102, 189–90, 196, 197n39, 221–3, 228–9, 244–5
Senior, Nassau 30, 181–2, 230
Shackleton, Ebenezer 233
Sharpe, Charles 77
Sheil, Richard Lalor 178n136
Shoemaker, Robert 27
shopkeepers see beggars
Shore, Rev. Thomas R. 34, 77
Sick and Indigent Roomkeepers’ Society 77, 212, 215
Sinton, Thomas 248
Sisters of Charity see Religious Sisters of Charity
Sisters of Mercy 203, 207, 213
Skelton, Philip 72
Slack, Paul 21
Sligo county 122
Sligo town 91, 155, 157, 161, 164, 168, 213
Smyly, Ellen 249
Society for the Relief of Industrious Poor 150
Society of St Vincent de Paul 194, 211–13
spailpíní (vagrant agricultural labourers) 2–3, 21, 31, 44–5, 54, 63, 78–9, 82, 112, 258
Spain 193
Speenhamland system (of poor assistance) 72, 226, 231
Stanley, Edward 7
Stanley, William 76, 78
statistical inquiry 65–8, 259
Statistical Society of London 66, 68
Stillorgan, County Dublin 154, 156, 157, 179
Strabane, County Tyrone 113
Strangers’ Friend Societies 4, 23, 148, 244–7, 257
Stranorlar, County Donegal 86
street inspectors 29, 61, 79, 167
St Teresa 214
subsistence crises 5
1739–41 famine and disease epidemic 5, 106, 135
early-1770s disease epidemic 135
1799–1801 famine and disease epidemic 135
1816–19 famine and disease (typhus) epidemic 5, 36, 78, 107–14, 115, 135–6, 138, 141, 151–3
early-1820s famine and disease epidemic 135
1826–7 disease (typhus) epidemic 5, 50–2, 139–40, 154–6
1832–3 disease (cholera) epidemic 5, 31, 140–1, 209
Sumner, Bishop John Bird (Church of England) 221–2
Sunday schools 98, 189, 220–1, 250
Swift, Dean Jonathan 114, 127, 141–2, 223
Switzerland 108
Templemore, County Tipperary 93
Thackeray, William Makepeace 95
Thompson, F.M.L. 27
Thomson, Charles 177
Thurles, County Tipperary 92
Townsend, Rev. Joseph 193
Tracton, County Cork 100
Tralee, County Kerry 74, 181
transportation (to Australia) 24–9, 82–3, 230
(p.300) travellers’ accounts 35, 37–8, 39, 50, 55, 58, 70–1, 122, 162, 179–81, 233–4
Troy, Archbishop John (Roman Catholic) 213
Tuam, County Galway 86, 87
Tullamore, King’s County 111, 113
Tullow, County Carlow 87
Tuohy, Bishop Charles (Roman Catholic) 9
Tyrone county 53
Ulster (and unique patterns of mendicancy and alms-giving) 40–1, 134, 135, 154–7, 234–7, 256, 258
Urney, County Tyrone 56
vagrancy and vagabondage 21–6, 55–6, 140
vagrancy laws 3, 24–30, 33, 75, 82–4, 103, 167, 201, 230
Vaughan, Rev. 69
Vienna 113
Vignoles, Rev. Charles 180
von Voght, Caspar 159
Walshe, Alicia 206, 217
Waterford city 44, 56, 74, 114, 138, 155, 157, 159, 161, 171, 179, 181, 214, 245, 247
Wells, County Carlow 87
Wesley, Rev. John 220, 240, 245–7
Wexford county 70, 76, 112
Wexford town 86, 88, 122, 155, 157
Whately, Archbishop Richard (Church of Ireland) 6, 18, 67–8, 200, 218, 228–30, 250, 256
Whately Poor Inquiry see inquiries into social conditions
Whelan, Irene 220
White, Francis 246
Whitefield, Rev. George 220
Whitelaw, Rev. James 54, 77
Wicklow county 111, 112
Wilberforce, William 220
Wilde, Dr William R. 34
Wilson, William 142
Windele, John 123
Wingfield family 225
women 203–8, 248–50
as alms-givers 56–60, 61, 62–3
as beggars 26–7, 33, 42–5, 49, 60, 97, 98, 120, 147, 233, 254
Woods, Audrey 16
Woodward, Bishop Richard (Church of Ireland) 7, 58, 72–3, 150, 224, 250, 256
Woolf, Stuart 81
workhouses 45, 75, 138, 141, 164–5, 170–8, 182
Wright, Jonathan 219, 232
York Retreat 248
Young, G.M. 67