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Women, Citizenship, and SexualityThe Transnational Lives of Renée Vivien, Romaine Brooks, and Natalie Barney$
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Melanie C. Hawthorne

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781789628128

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: September 2021

DOI: 10.3828/liverpool/9781789628128.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM LIVERPOOL SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.liverpool.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Liverpool University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in LSO for personal use.date: 09 December 2021

“Partout Etrangère”: Romaine Brooks

“Partout Etrangère”: Romaine Brooks

(p.77) Chapter 3 “Partout Etrangère”: Romaine Brooks
Women, Citizenship, and Sexuality

Melanie C. Hawthorne

Liverpool University Press

The case of Romaine Brooks (1874-1970) illustrates the loss of autonomy and self-definition that women may experience as a result of not having a claim to citizenship in their own right. Drawing on original research, the chapter recounts how Brooks unwillingly became a mother, but rejected that identity, and lost her American citizenship by marrying a British man. Like Vivien, Brooks lived transnationally: she was born in Rome to American parents, educated primarily in Europe, and lived most of her adult life in Italy and France, with occasional visits to the US. Like Vivien, she was independently wealthy, and this status afforded her some privilege, but it could not shield her entirely from being defined by others in important areas of her life.

Keywords:   Romaine Brooks, (American) Expatriation, Unmarried motherhood

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