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Creating American Reform JudaismLife and Times of Isaac Mayer Wise$

Sefton D. Temkin

Print publication date: 1998

Print ISBN-13: 9781874774457

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: February 2021

DOI: 10.3828/liverpool/9781874774457.001.0001

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(p.313) Index

(p.313) Index

Source:
Creating American Reform Judaism
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
Abraham, joseph (Cincinnati) 123
Adams, John Quincy 34
Adath Jeshurun, Congregation (New York) 135, 257–8
Adler, Felix 213, 288, 290
Adler, Samuel (New York) 167, 206, 215, 231, 233, 256, 285
Ahavath Hesed, Congregation (New York) 289
Albany, New York, Jewish community in
early history 44–5
Wise in 42–57 see also Anshe Emeth, Beth El
American Israelite, naming of 266
American Judaism, reformatory character of 262
Anshe Chesed, Congregation (New York)
rabbinate of 253–4
and Wise 254–8
Anshe Emeth, Congregation (Albany)
first buildings 77
foundation (1850) 74,75
progress 95 n.
reforms at 77–8
Wise travels to raise funds for 76,
‘Are You a Member of a Congregation?’ (Wise) 259
Baeck, Leo, quoted 37
‘The Bath Qol’ (Wise) 86
Beecher, Henry Ward, criticizd by Wise 119
Beth El, Congregation (Albany) 43
secession of Wise’s supporters from 74
and Wise:
conflicts with 66-75;
contract (1849) 46–8;
dismissal from 72;
elected rabbi (1846) 43–4;
first visit to 43;
makes changes in ritual 50–1;
Rosh Hashanah violence 72–3;
salary 45 see also Anshe Emeth
Beth El, Temple (Detroit) 208
Beth Elohim, Congregation (Charleston)
position on reform 62
and Wise:
debate with M. J. Raphall 63, 64–5;
elected rabbi 63;
withdraws from 67
Bible, Wise’s belief in divine inspiration of 94–5,291
Bene Israel, Congregation (Cincinnati)
establishment of 107
invites Wise to be rabbi 110
Bene Israel, Congregation (St Louis) 246
B’nai Jeshurun, Congregation (Cincinnati)
foundation and early years 107–8
and State Senate election (1863) 183–4
supports Union project 246–52
and Wise:
appointment as rabbi 96–101;
makes changes in ritual 108–10;
relations with congregation 105, 106–7
Board of Delegates of American Israelites
absorbed by Union of American Hebrew Congregations 285
Wise’s co-operation with 222–9, 230–2, 238–9
Wise’s hostility to 168–70
Boerne, Ludwig 4
Bohemia see Jews, in Bohemia
Bondi, Jonas 279
Bondi, Selma, Wise’s marriage to 279–80
Boston Evening Journal 117–18
Bryce, James 182
Buchanan, James 175
The Catastrophe at Eger (Wise) 113–14
Civil War (American), and Wise
concern for Union 174–9
and Grant’s Order 182
and Jewish chaplains 169–70
and Peace Democrats 182–7
policy of silence 180
on slavery 176–7, 179
Cleveland, Rabbinical Conference at (1855) 131–49
controversies following 138–49
intended ‘follow-up’ 136, 137, 138
‘platform’ agreed upon 136–8
proceedings of 137–45
summons to 133 (p.314)
Cleveland-cont.
Wise’s agitation for 131–3 see also Einhorn, David; Minhag America
Cohn, Elkan 102, 134, 155, 167
Cohn, Joseph 32
The Combat of the People (Wise) 161
congregational union
Cleveland conference accepts 137
reform, relationship to 216–17,225–6, 231–2
Wise’s advocacy of:
early attempts 49–57,240;
criticized by Kohler 104;
recalled in Asmonean 60–1;
resumed (1885) 131–5;
(1863) 198–9;
The Convert (Wise) 113
Conway, Moncure, D. 181
The Cosmic Cod (Wise) 189,213–14, 244
de Wette, Wilhelm M. L. 94
Deutsch, Gotthard 12
Die Deborah
attitude to rabbinical conference 21 I
attitude to slavery 177
difficulty in continuing 198
established (1855) 124
finds subscribers 126
‘Die Situation und die Conferenz’ (Wise) 233
Die Tante (Ehrmann) 12–13
dietary laws, Wise’s interpretation of 93
Douglas, Stephen A. 172
education of Jews, Wise on 260–1, 283–4 see also Hebrew Union College
Ehrmann, Daniel, Die Tante 12, 13
Eichberg, Fred (letter from, 1863) 184
Einhorn, David
Cleveland Platform, opposition to 139–45
Germanic outlook 135–6
influence for reform 205, 209
and Philadelphia rabbinical conference:
aresolutions of 216–19;
asummons to 215
settles in United States 135–6, 206–7
Wise, conflicts with 225, 230, 231, 233–4, 242–4 see also Olath Tamid
Eisenmenger, Johann Andreas 82,83
Elbogen, Ismar (quoted) 290
Ellinger, Moritz 209, 245, 263
Emanu-El, Temple (New York)
foundation (1845) 41
religious leadership in 256
school for rabbis at 284
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, adherence to 285
and Wise:
assembly hall named after 218;
rebuff to 260;
Saratoga, encounter with leaders at 285
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 34–5
‘The End of Popes, Nobles and Kings’ (Wise) 6
Eppinger, Solomon 269
Er kann noch sein Cluck machen (Wise) 16–17, 19–20
The Essence of Judaism (Wise) 157–60, 203
Felsenthal, Bernhard 245, 248
Feuerbach, Ludwig 4
The First of the Maccabees (Wise) 161
‘The First Principle of Judaism’ (Wise) 88
‘The Folly of the Century’ (Wise) 161
Fraenkel, Zacharias 258
Free Religious Association 211–13
Freund, Samuel 20, 23
Freiberg, Louis 211
Friedlaender, David 212
Frothingham, Octavius Brooks 211–12
‘God Preserves Congregation Bene El of St Louis’ (Wise) 246
Goodheart, Jacob 96
Grant, Ulysses S., Order No. II 182
Greeley, Horace 171
Hahn, Aaron 299
Habsburgs, Central Europe under 30
Har-Sinai Verein (Baltimore) 1–135
Hebrew Union College
early years 281–4
establishment, UAHC decision 265–7
first ordination 286
Wise as president 196–7, 267-9, 269-73, 281–4
Heine, Heinrich 4, 15
Heller, Max 298
Hirsch, Emil G. 299
Hirsch, Samson Raphael, Nineteen Letters of Ben Uziel 16
Hirsch, Samuel 216,229,244,248
Religionsphilosophie 206 (p.315)
History of the Israelite Nation from Abraham to the Present Time (Wise) 90–5, 145
Holdheim, Samuel 17
hukkim, Wise defines 159
Homberg, Herz 20–1, 291, 294
Huebsch, Adolph 231, 237, 241, 279
Ibn Ezra, Moses 18
Illowizi, Henry 116, 194–5
Through Morocco to Minnesota 194-5
Immigrant Aid Society (Cincinnati) 297
immigration to America, and Jewish life 36–41
inter-faith activity 211–13
Isaacs, S. M. 168–9
Israelite
on Civil War 197
name changed to American Israelite 266
polemics in 115–16, 117–18, 119–23
prayer book controversy 236
style and methods in 87, 112–25
Wise’s vision in launching 29
Jackson, Andrew 34–5
Jacob ben Asher, Tur 133
Jacobson, Israel 15
Jastrow, Marcus 223, 226, 244
Jesus Himself (Wise) 160
‘The Jewish Constitution, based on the Code of Maimonides’ (Wise) 87
Jewish Leader 279
Jewish life, effects of migration on 36–44
Jewish Messenger 168, 180, 193, 202, 222–3, 224–5, 227, 279
Jewish Theological Seminary 293, 302
Jewish Times 209, 217, 232, 252, 268, 279
Jewsin Bohemia:
background 1–7;
cultural changes 3, 9–11, 20;
rabbinate 11–13, 16;
reform Judaism 14, 15;
village life 7–15;
Wissenchaft des Judentums 15, 16
history, biblical (Wise) 90–5 see also Jewish life
Judaism
doctrines, Wise’s exposition of 79–85, 156–61
union of congregations:
early attempts at 51–2, 54–7
in United States
;
beginnings 36–7;
German immigration after 1815 36–7;
rabbinic leadership, absence of 39;
Reform of 41;
separation of church and state 40
Kaempf, Samuel Isaac 254–5, 258
Kehillath Anshe Ma’arav (Chicago) 263
Keneseth Israel, Congregation (Philadelphia) 135
Kohler, Kaufmann
arrival in America 206
attacks Wise 264–5, 303
drafts Pittsburgh Platform 289–90
and Jewish Times 209
and Philadelphia conference 225
president of Hebrew Union College 304
reports Wise’s views on prospects of American Judaism 212
Leeser, Isaac
career 40, 41. 204–6
and Cleveland conference 136–7
and Maimonides College 223, 224
slavery, attitude to 177
and Wise:
attacks on Leeser 167;
Charleston visit 62;
congregational conference, call for 55–6, 59–60, 61;
mutual tributes 204–7;
sermons published 76;
‘singing ministers’ 78 see also Occident
‘Let Us Be One’ (Wise) 232
‘Life and Religion’ (Wise) 89
liturgy
heth din authorizes Wise to prepare 52
basis of revision 52
Cleveland conference and 137–8
and congregational authority 203
uniformity needed in 210 see also Minhag America
Maimonides College 222–5, 226, 239
The Martyrdom of Jesus of Nazareth (Wise) 160
Mayer, Jacob 230, 237, 242
Mayer, Lippman 206
Mendelssohn, Moses 14–15,20–1, 132, 212
Menken, Ada Isaacs 116
Merzbacher, Leo
at Cleveland conference 138
meets Wise 42.
position in New York 39
and prayer book 149
salary 45 (p.316)
Metternich, CIemens von 1–4, 25
Mielziner, Moses 253, 285, 298
Miller, Jacob L. 138
Miller, M. R. 79
Minhag America 149–56
changes introduced in 274–7
Cleveland Conference authorizes 138
criticized:
in Asmonean 153;
in Sinai 155
description 150–1
historical basis for 152, 156–7
Part I published 150
Part II published 151
replacement by Union Prayer Book 301
revision controversies 233–8
Wise’s advocacy of 155–6;
in New York 201–2
mishpatim, Wise defines 159
mitsvoth, Wise defines 159
Morais, Sabato 177, 283
Morgenstern, Julian 304
Mortara, Edgar (Mortara case) 167, 172
‘Mrs. F.’ 76–7, 86,94
National Conference of Unitarian
Churches 212
New York Times 281
New York Tribune 242
‘No Political Preaching’ (Wise) 173, 175–6
Occident
Abraham’s attack on Wise 123
established by Isaac Leeser 40
New York beth din proposals 49,52–3
reviews Wise’s work 59, 76
theological differences between Leeser and Wise 79–85, 142–5
Wise-Leeser union project 53–5, 61
Ochs, Adolph S. 280–1
Ochs, Iphigene (Effie Wise) 280–1
Oheb Shalom, Congregation (Baltimore) 170
Olath tamid 202, 207, 274, 299 see also Einhorn, David
The Origins of Christianity (Wise) 86, 160, 193, 212
Orthodox Judaism
rabbinic training 222–9
versus Reform 62–75
and Wise:
conflict with, in Charleston 62–75;
moves for cooperation with 222–9, 262
‘Our American Israel’ (Wise) 210
‘Our Rearguard’ (Wise) 146
Palladium (New Haven), commends sermon by Wise 42
Parker, Theodore 94
Peixotto, B. F. 200
‘A Perfect Union’ (Wise) 232
Philipson, David 267
Philipson, Joseph 267
Pittsburgh Platform 286–94
background 286–9
clauses 289–90
Elbogen’s assessment of 290
Wise’s association with 290–4
Pius IX, Pope 161
Poznanski, Gustavus 63–5, 70
Presbyterian Witness 201
Pronaos to Holy Writ (Wise) 291, 303
rabbinate
in Bohemia 9, 11–14, 24–5
Orthodox-Reform co-operation 222–9
seminary for training (America) 78, 106
Raphall, Morris Jacob 177, 206, 228
and Charleston debate 62–3, 64, 65, 70
death 206
slavery, position on 177
Wise’s controversy with 100
Rappaport, S. J. L. 16, 23–4
Reform Judaism
beginnings, in Germany 17, 25, 40–1
United States 40–1;
in Albany 41;
in Charleston 41, 62–75;
in Cincinnati 108–10
East European immigration, effect of on 294–7
Hebrew Union College and 293–4
and Philadelphia Conference:
call for 210;
resolutions of 216;
Wise and 216–17
and Pittsburgh Platfrom 286–94
press suport for 209
progress of 287, 294
Wise’s approach to:
American character of 262;
Anshe Emet (Albany) 74–5;
and’ Charleston rabbinate 66, 67, 68;
and congregational authority 262;
limitations of 203;
radicalism criticized 218–19;
unity paramount 51–5, 198–9, 201, 210, 261 (p.317)
Religionsphilosophie (Hirsch) 206
‘Reply to the Anonymous Calling Himself the Committee of N. Y. Zion Collegiate Association No. 2’ (Wise) 128–9
ritual changes (Cincinnati) 108–11
Rodef Shalom, Congregation (Pittsburgh) 263
Rodkinson, Michael 303
Ronsperg, Bezalel 19
Rosenfeld, A. L. 108
Rotteck, Karl von 4, 6
Sabbath observance 261, 269, 293
Sachs, Morris 268
Schloss, Moses 43
Schlosser, Friedrich 4
Schmidt, Charles 113
Schulz, T. 66
Seward, William Henry 63
Shaarey Tefillah, Congregation (New York) 56
Sinai 145, 155, 170
Society for Ethical Culture 288
Sokolow, Nahum 297
Sonnenschein, S. H. 231,247, 273
Spanier, Louis 70–2, 76
Spinoza, Baruch 84
‘The Spirit of New York Affairs’ (Wise) 254
Sporberg, Joseph 75
Strauss, David Friedrich, Leben Jesu 4
Sullivan, John L. 33
Sulzer, Solomon 17–18, 50, 108, 192
‘The Sunset of the Nineteenth Century’ (Wise) 301
Szold, Benjamin 170
Talmud Yelodim Institute 107, 184, 269
Taylor, Zachary 63
toroth, Wise defines 158
Tur (Oacob Ben Asher) 133
Union of American Hebrew Congregations 115, 249-52, 258, 263–5, 266–70
and Hebrew Union college 281–6, 297–8, 302, 304 see also congregational union
Union Hymnal 301
Union Prayer Book 149, 150, 299,301
Vallandigham, Clement 183, 187
Wallenstein, Albrecht 1
Webster, Daniel 33, 63
Weis, Isaiah (grandfather of Isaac Mayer Wise) 18
Weis,Leo (great-grandfather of Isaac Mayer Wise) 18
Weis, Leo (father of Isaac Mayer Wise) 18–19
Weis, Regina 19
Wellhausen, Julius 292
Wilson, Henry 180
Wise, EIsa 303
Wise, Emily (Mrs Benjamin May) 280
Wise, Harry 298
Wise, Iphigene (Effie) (Mrs Adolph Simon Ochs) 280–1
Wise, Isaac Mayer
Albany years 35–75
Americanization of I, 5–6
Anshe Chesed; Congregation (New York) 254–8
Beth Elohim, Congregation (Charleston) 62–75
Bohemia, Jewish life in 5–15
and Central Conference of American Rabbis 297–301; 304
Cincinnati years 104–273
in Civil War period 172–87
and congregational union 51–7, 104, 115 ,131; see also Union of American Hebrew Congregations
early years 1–29
education 9–11, 15–18
family life 279-81
and Hebrew Union College 196–7, 267–73, 281–4
intellectual influences on, in Bohemia 5–15
on Jewish doctrines 79–85, 156–61
and Jewish literature 57–9
and Jews in Cincinnati 190–6
liturgy, changes in 106, 108–9
Minhag America see separate entry
New World experiences 31–7
and Pittsburgh Platform 290–4
political activity 106, 162–3, 171–3, 183–5
president of Hebrew Union College 269–73
and Reform Judaism in Cincinnati, beginnings of 104–11
on slavery, and Civil War 173–87
on states’ rights, in Civil War 173–87 (p.318)
talmudic study, in Bohemia 9–11
views on role as rabbi 97–9
on Zionism 300–1, 302
Isaac Mayer Wise, writings of ‘Are You a Member of a Congregation?’ 259
‘The Bath Qol’ 86 .
The Catastrophe at Eger 113-14
The Combat of the People 161
The Convert 113
The Cosmic Cod 189, 213–14, 244
‘Die Situation und die Conferenz’ 233
‘The End of Popes, Nobles and Kings’ 6
Er kann noch sein Cluck machen 16-17, 19–20
The Essence of Judaism 157–60, 203
The First of the Maccabees 161
‘The First Principle of Judaism’ 88
‘The Folly of the Century’ 161
‘God Preserves Congregation Bene El of St Louis’ 246
History of the Israelite Nation from Abraham to the Present Time 90-5, 145
Jesus Himself 160
‘The Jewish Constitution, based on the Code of Maimonides’ 87
‘Let Us Be One’ 232
‘Life and Religion’ 89
The Martyrdom of Jesus of Nazareth 160
‘No Political Preaching’ 173, 175–6
The Origins of Christianity 86, 160, 193, 212
‘Our American Israel’ 210
‘Our Rearguard’ 146
‘A Perfect Union’ 232
Pronaos 10 Holy Writ 291, 303
‘Reply to the Anonymous Calling Himself The Committee of N.Y. Zion Collegiate Association No. 2’ 128–9
‘The Spirit of New York Affairs’ 254
‘The Sunset of the Nineteenth Century’ 301
Wise, Jonah 281
Wise, Julius 281
Wise, Laura 57–8
Wise, Leo 280
Wise, Selma (Bondi) 279–80
Wise, Therese(a) (Bloch) 21, 32, 188, 214
Wissenschaft des Judentums 15
Wolfenstein, Solomon 282–3
Wood, Amos 74
World’s Parliament of Religions 302
Yad (Maimonides) 133
Zion College 125–30, 172–3, 258
Zion Collegiate Association 125–6
Zion, Congregation (Shreveport) 251
Zionism, Wise’s views on 300–1,302
Zunz, Leopold 15, 16, 99