This chapter reviews the process of Jewish self-questioning and cultural activity in France that began with the Dreyfus affair and reached its peak in the late 1920s. It recounts important changes in France and on the international stage that changed the priorities, concerns, and activities of French Jews in the mid-1930s. It also discusses the problem of antisemitism, which remained a relatively minor issue for French Jews in the 1920s and became a central concern in the 1930s. The chapter cites the advent of a virulently antisemitic dictatorship that enacted discriminatory legislation against Jews in western Europe, which sent shock waves through the French Jewish population. It talks about Action Française, which by the mid-1930s regularly sent hooligans and other right-wing political leagues, who had taken a decided turn towards antisemitism, into immigrant neighbourhoods.
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