This chapter mentions German philosopher Immanuel Kant who wrote a treatise entitled Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone where he defended the thesis of the autonomy of philosophical ethics and the inherent rationality of the laws of morality. On the basis of this principle, Kant concluded that if religion is to be admitted as a legitimate mode of thought and practice it would have to be measured by reason. It explains Kant's further conclusions that among the three historical faiths: Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, only Christianity in its Protestant form came close to satisfying the rational and moral conditions that reason and morality prescribe. The chapter also talks about the Jewish neo-Kantian philosopher Hermann Cohen who accepted for the most part Kant's general conception of a religion of reason but rejected his judgement concerning Judaism. In Cohen's last important work, The Religion of Reason out of the Sources of Judaism, he attempted to show the essential rationality of Judaism and its foundation in the moral law.
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