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Jews in Poland and Russia: 1881-1914 v. 2$
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Antony Polonsky

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9781904113836

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: February 2021

DOI: 10.3828/liverpool/9781904113836.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM LIVERPOOL SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.liverpool.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Liverpool University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in LSO for personal use.date: 25 September 2021

Revolution and Reaction 1904–1914

Revolution and Reaction 1904–1914

(p.40) Two Revolution and Reaction 1904–1914
Jews in Poland and Russia: 1881-1914 v. 2

Antony Polonsky

Liverpool University Press

This chapter examines how the years between 1905 and 1907 saw the most sustained outbreak of social and political violence in the tsarist empire since the Pugachev rebellion in the late eighteenth century. As in Austria in 1848, the government eventually regained power but its authority was severely shaken. It was forced on October 17, 1905, to grant a constitution which introduced a parliament, the Duma, with restricted powers, and also greatly increased the freedom of the press, recognizing a situation which had come into being during the months before the October Manifesto. The revolution saw unprecedented political mobilization throughout the empire. Political groupings, both in the Russian heartland and in the non-Russian periphery, now emerged from underground and became mass movements. At the same time, in order to retain power the government had recourse to unprecedented violence, both in the form of arrests and executions of revolutionaries and through the encouragement of pro-government vigilante groups of a proto-fascist character.

Keywords:   political violence, tsarist empire, tsarist government, Duma, October Manifesto, revolution, political mobilization, political groupings, pro-government vigilante groups

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