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Jews in Poland and Russia: 1881-1914 v. 2$
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Antony Polonsky

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9781904113836

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: February 2021

DOI: 10.3828/liverpool/9781904113836.001.0001

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(p.404) Conclusion
Jews in Poland and Russia: 1881-1914 v. 2

Antony Polonsky

Liverpool University Press

This concluding chapter highlights how the ‘long nineteenth century’ had an extremely disruptive impact on Jewish communal solidarity in the lands of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The principal reason for the fractious character of Jewish life was the increasingly desperate situation of the Jews. Antisemitism became the stock-in-trade of the tsarist authorities, who fastened on imaginary Jewish conspiracies as the explanation for the crises which threatened the empire. In the Kingdom of Poland and in the Prussian partition, Polish political life was now dominated by the Endecja which came increasingly under the sway of obsessive antisemitism. Ideological rifts and an inability to compromise were deeply embedded in the new Jewish politics. This new departure, the politics of ‘peoplehood’, which first emerged in the decade of the 1880s in the tsarist empire, was a response to the perceived failure of the politics of integration. From there it transformed Jewish politics in the Kingdom of Poland and Galicia and gradually the whole of the Jewish world.

Keywords:   Jewish life, Jews, antisemitism, tsarist empire, Kingdom of Poland, Prussian Poland, Galicia, Endecja, new Jewish politics, Jewish integration

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