This chapter uses an intersectional approach to analyse the practices and experiences of and reactions to anti-Jewish violence in Poland and Hungary from 1918 to 1922. It explores how people articulated the violence against Jews and shows that gender, age, political, and class hierarchies played important roles in people's interpretations of it and how it represented a break from 'normal times' or, more specifically, from established norms about who violence should touch and how it could be administered. The chapter then examines how Jewish communities, with the assistance of groups like the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), sought to reconstruct Jewish life and shore it up against current and future threats, how the hierarchies shaped their strategies of self-defence, and how the relief organizations restored the hierarchies. It focuses primarily on the experiences of physical violence in the large Jewish communities of Lwów, Vilna, and Warsaw in Poland and Budapest in Hungary. While Poland and Hungary differed in significant ways, their Jewish communities' experiences and interpretations of violence shared common themes. Furthermore, the JDC's vision for Jewish communities had important gendered and classed components that shaped its relief and reconstructive work across all of eastern Europe.
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