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Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry Volume 31Poland and Hungary: Jewish Realities Compared$
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François Guesnet, Howard Lupovitch, and Antony Polonsky

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9781906764715

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: February 2021

DOI: 10.3828/liverpool/9781906764715.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM LIVERPOOL SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.liverpool.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Liverpool University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in LSO for personal use.date: 26 June 2022

Warsaw and Budapest, 1939–1945

Warsaw and Budapest, 1939–1945

Two Ghettos, Two Policies, Two Outcomes

(p.381) Warsaw and Budapest, 1939–1945
Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry Volume 31

László Karsai

Liverpool University Press

This chapter provides a comparison of the histories of the Warsaw and Budapest ghettos. Prior to the Second World War, a significant number of Jews lived in both cities. However, their fates were very different: of the 380,000 Jews living in Warsaw before the war only an estimated 11,500 survived, whereas out of the 200,000 Jews of Budapest more than 130,000 lived to see the liberation of Hungary. In Warsaw, as in many other areas they occupied (Serbia, the Baltic states, and Ukraine), the Nazis did not have to discuss their Jewish policy with the local authorities. In those places, however, where they had to take into consideration the wishes of their allies and collaborators, Jews often had a better chance of survival: Vichy France, Mussolini's Italy, and Hungary. Another reason why the Jews of Budapest survived the Holocaust was because the Germans occupied Hungary only in the spring of 1944, and Adolf Eichmann arrived with an express order from Himmler to start the deportations in the countryside, in eastern Hungary. In Warsaw, the Germans had several years to plan how to 'cleanse' the city of its Jews.

Keywords:   Warsaw ghettos, Budapest ghettos, Second World War, Jews, Warsaw, Budapest, Nazis, Jewish policy, Holocaust

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