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Between Resistance and AdaptationIndigenous Peoples and the Colonisation of the Chocó, 1510–1753$
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Caroline A. Williams

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780853237297

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.5949/UPO9781846312670

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Conversion and Control: The Franciscans in the Chocó, 1673–677

Conversion and Control: The Franciscans in the Chocó, 1673–677

(p.94) Chapter Four Conversion and Control: The Franciscans in the Chocó, 1673–677
Between Resistance and Adaptation
Liverpool University Press

In November 27, 1666, the Spanish Crown issued its royal cédula instructing the governors of Popayán, Antioquia, and Cartagena, as well as the president of the audiencia of Panama, to participate in a new effort towards the colonisation of the Chocó. In particular, missionaries, or ministros evangélicos, were to lead the pacification campaign through peaceful conversion of Indians to the Christian faith. From the late sixteenth century onwards, large parts of Spanish America became mission territories administered by Franciscans, Jesuits, Dominicans, Augustinians, Capuchins, Mercedarians, and Calced Carmelites. This chapter explores the obstacles presented by native systems of organisation to the Franciscan objectives of reducción and Christian indoctrination, and how they made it difficult for the friars to accomplish their mission. It first considers the social, economic, and political organisation of the Citará before turning to the Franciscans' Chocó mission, and concludes by focusing on Juan Bueso de Valdés' entrada to Citará province in 1676–1677.

Keywords:   Spanish America, conversion, Chocó, colonisation, missionaries, Indians, reducción, Citará, Bueso de Valdés, Franciscans

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