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Bourbon Peru 1750-1824$
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John Fisher

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780853239086

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.5949/UPO9781846312687

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Society, Ethnicity and Culture

Society, Ethnicity and Culture

(p.80) Chapter Four Society, Ethnicity and Culture
Bourbon Peru 1750-1824
Liverpool University Press

This chapter explores social structures and ethnic relations, along with cultural life and influences, in Peru under the Bourbon monarchy. It discusses cultural activity in the broad context of a growing curiosity among Europe's intellectuals in the eighteenth century for information about the history, natural resources, and inhabitants of South America. This thirst for knowledge was linked to the decision by Spain's Bourbon kings to gradually open up the sub-continent to non-Iberian scientific travellers such as Amédée Frézier, Jorge Juan, and Antonio de Ulloa. In 1768 the Prussian priest Cornelius de Pauw argued that creoles were physically and intellectually inferior to Europeans. This argument was challenged by Francisco Clavijero, an exiled Mexican Jesuit. The chapter also looks at how Lima's Mercurio Peruano, published in 1791–1794, inculcated an embryonic sense of national identity in the minds of the viceroyalty's creole elite.

Keywords:   Peru, social structures, ethnic relations, cultural life, Bourbon monarchy, intellectuals, Europe, South America, creoles, national identity

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