This chapter describes the political and religious circumstances prevalent in Ireland throughout the making of the plan for Londonderry. It provides a brief historical background of Ireland and highlights the schism between those Irish who regard Northern Ireland as an integral part of Great Britain and those who regard it as a natural part of the Republic of Ireland. It discusses the social and economic inequities that affected both Protestant and Catholic working-class populations and considers the struggle of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the signing of the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty.
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