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Invisible MenThe Secret Lives of Police Constables in Liverpool, Manchester and Birmingham, 1900-1939$
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Joanne Klein

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9781846312359

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.5949/UPO9781846316104

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Discipline and Defaulters

Discipline and Defaulters

(p.72) 3 Discipline and Defaulters
Invisible Men
Liverpool University Press

In the early twentieth century, police constables in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool didn't carry out their duties without questioning some of them. In order to make their jobs less burdensome, they sidestepped orders. In policing, the line between exercising discretion and defaulting on a duty was a fine one. A decision could be viewed as good judgement by one senior officer, but a violation by another. Police constables committed two basic types of errors: lack of action and too much action. Police duties required constant attention to police regulations, but this path was difficult to follow. Disciplinary offences consisted mainly of neglect of duty cases, as well as insubordination against senior officers. Discipline was handled differently from city to city in terms of strictness and style. Levels of penalties also varied.

Keywords:   Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool, police constables, defaults, discipline, neglect of duty, penalties, insubordination, policing

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