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Invisible MenThe Secret Lives of Police Constables in Liverpool, Manchester and Birmingham, 1900-1939$
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Joanne Klein

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9781846312359

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.5949/UPO9781846316104

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Factions and Friendships

Factions and Friendships

(p.110) 4 Factions and Friendships
Invisible Men
Liverpool University Press

In the early twentieth century, police constables in Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool acted out contradictory patterns of internal hostilities and loyalties, not only within ranks but also up and down the police hierarchy. Both older and newer constables complained about the growing burden of duties but fought with each other over police practices and the importance of education. Those who were bypassed for promotion or harshly punished resented colleagues they believed were unfairly gaining higher rank or not being punished enough for breaches of regulations. Although constables were wary of senior officers, they also had close friends promoted into the upper ranks with whom they maintained ties. A strong sense of camaraderie coexisted with disunity and factionalism. This strange combination of discord and friendship stemmed from the nature of the police force.

Keywords:   Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool, police constables, senior officers, camaraderie, friendship, discord, factionalism

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