This concluding chapter seeks to find some answers to this study's principal questions: what do we mean when we speak of nationalism in twentieth-century Argentina; why has it continued to play a crucial role in the country's culture and politics; and, what can we learn from this for the study of nationalism more generally? Three central arguments are proposed. The first is that, in Argentina, the demarcations between those who were imagined to belong to the nation and those who were not were internalized to an extraordinary degree; that is, dividing lines tended to run through Argentina. The second argument is that the sort of biculturalism to which this internalization of demarcation lines gave rise is better understood as an interpretive matrix about national identity than as a clear-cut divide between two political-cultural traditions (‘liberal’ versus ‘nationalist’). Third, it makes better sense to interpret nationalism as an ongoing interplay between civic and ethnic/cultural ways of defining the community.
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