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American CreolesThe Francophone Caribbean and the American South$

Martin Munro and Celia Britton

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9781846317538

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.5949/UPO9781846317200

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PRINTED FROM LIVERPOOL SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.liverpool.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Liverpool University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in LSO for personal use.date: 26 September 2021

(p.244) Index

(p.244) Index

Source:
American Creoles
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press

Note: The letter ‘f’ indicates a figure and ‘n’ a footnote.

Action française movement 135
Adderley, Cannonball 156
Adorno, Theodor W. 205, 206
aesthetics 106–7, 203n8
African Americans
and créolité 70–4, 172
and Faulkner, William 190
French usage of term 7, 81–2
and jazz 167
and nostalgia 133, 139
Obama, Barack and 90, 91
and racial discrimination 143
African Diaspora 88
Algeria 129, 143–4
American South
Caribbean writers' and artists' relationship with 14–15
Faulkner, William and 185–6, 188
historical trauma of 200–1
Anglo-Americans 60
anthropology
Glissant, Édouard on 105
literariness of 95–6, 97
postmodern 8
Price, Richard: The Convict and the Colonel 95, 97–9
anti-societies 113
Appiah, Kwame Anthony 80
Aribot, Médard see Médard Aribot
Armstrong, Louis 138, 140, 142
Association for the Study of African and Caribbean Literature in French 1
Atlantic triangle 2
autobiography: Price, Richard: The Convict and the Colonel 95, 97, 99–100
Backès, Jean-Louis 151
Barbados 31
Barthes, Roland 148, 151
beauty 86
Bébel-Gislert, Dany 170n8
bebop 135, 139, 140–1, 143
Benjamin, Walter 197, 208
Bergerot, Franck 159
Berlusconi, Silvio 87
Bernabé, Jean 4, 100
Bernasconi, Robert 131–2
biguine (musical genre) 167, 169
black code see Code noir
Black Music Research Journal 165
(p.245) Black Power 114
blackness
Fanon, Frantz 87
Jackson, Michael 86
Obama, Barack 81, 86, 87, 88, 91 see also négritude
Bloch, Ernst: Principle of Hope 206
blues 140–1, 142, 174
Bongie, Chris 219, 222n4
Bonoli, Lorenzo 97, 104
Boulet-Gercourt, Philippe 79
Bourel, Sophie 156
Brecht, Bertolt: Mahagonny 206n14
Britton, Celia
‘Eating Their Words’ 85, 147
on Glissant, Édouard 177
on langage 149
Bronner, Simon 26
Brooks, Peter 45n4
Brown, James
‘Out of Sight’ 114
‘Papa's Got a Brand New Bag’ 114–16
and rhythm 9, 114–15
Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de: Discours sur le style 148
Burton, Richard D. E. 173, 176
Cajun/Creole List 74
Camal, Jerome 11
Canboulay 126
Caribbean Creole dialect 32–3
Caribbean Sea 103–4
Carnival 125, 126
Carondelet, Françocis Louis Hector, Governor of Louisiana 50, 51–2
Carpentier, Alejo 191
Césaire, Aimé 3
and Action françdise 137
Cahier d'un retour au pays natal 15
and langage 191
and négritude 4, 176
Chamoiseau, Patrick
and Créolité movement 4, 100
Un dimanche au cachot 204n10
Éloge de la Créolité 21
influence 204n10
l'intraitable beauté du monde: adresse à barack obama 88, 90
Lettres créoles: tracées antillaises et continentales de la literature, 1635–1975 19, 20
Quand les murs tombent 177
Charles X, King of France 7
Charpentes (journal) 137
Chateaubriand, François-René Le Génie du christianisme 49–50
Chude-Sokei, Louis 81, 91
Cincinatti 23–4, 27, 28, 29, 31
class: ‘three-class system’ 71
Clifford, James 107
Writing Culture 95–6
Clinton, George 115n1
coartación 59
Code noir 79
Collot, Michel 210n18
colonialism 141–2
Coltrane, John 156, 162
comparative literature 203n9
Condé, Maryse 3
criticism of Creolists 4–5
influence of Faulkner, William 223–5
on Price's The Convict and the Colonel 95, 96
racial identity 216
Traversée de la mangrove
‘différé’ (repression of truth) 227
linked with Faulkner's As I Lay Dying 223, 224
filiation 226
guilt 226
incest 225, 227, 228
metaphor 225
slavery 227–8
(p.246) Confiant, Raphaël
and Créolité movement 4, 100
Éloge de la Créolité 21
‘Lafcadio Hearn: The Magnificent Traveler’ 20–1
Lettres créoles: tracées antillaises et continentales de la littérature, 1635–1975 19, 20
on Obama, Barack 87
‘Pitié pour Michael Jackson’ 86
cosmopolitanism 166
Cowley, John 126n11
‘Creole’: definition 5, 173
Creole continuum 21
Creole Project 171, 175, 176
‘Creoleness’ see créolité
Creoles
Americanization 41, 53, 60–1
continuum 20, 33, 38
language 32–3, 34, 66, 67, 84
memory 108
marriage 66
musical culture 119
oral tradition 66, 68
parody 126
racial identity 7, 64, 65, 68–70, 70–4 see also free people of colour
créolisation 89, 166, 176
créolistes (Créolité movement) 4–5, 98, 101, 105, 171
créolité
definition 171
Hearn, Lafcadio 21, 36, 38
Kiavué, Klod 172
Murray, David 172
Price, Richard: The Convict and the Colonel 100
creolization
créolistes and 4, 105
culinary 85–6
Faulkner, William and 185–6
and filiation 223
Glissant, Édouard and 185–6
Guadeloupe 11
Hearn, Lafcadio on 21–2
Martin, Denis-Constant on 168
Martinique 77–8
and métissage contrasted 7, 77, 88–9
of Obama, Barack 7–8, 77–8, 79, 80, 91
and race 186
and Relation 91
and rhythm 114–15, 122–7
roots of 165
Crowley, Patrick 185
Cuba 61
culture
and colonialism 141–2
musical 119
and négritude 132–3, 133–4, 168
oral 28
plantation 126
Dahomay, Christian 169
Damas, Léon-Gontron 137, 148
dances: slaves 126
Dash, J. Michael 83n11, 219
Davis, Miles
Birth of the Cool
‘Budo’ 159
Bitches Brew 153
‘Blue in Green’ 159
‘Footprints’ 162
and Glissant, Édouard compared 10–11
influence of 162
‘It's About That Time’ 160
Kind of Blue 153, 154
and language 147
‘Masqualero’ 159
Miles Smiles 159
on music 156
Nefertiti 159
and rhythm 156, 158–9, 161–2
spiral 159–60
(p.247) So What 155–6, 159
Spanish Key 159
Tutu 157
‘Splatch’ 156
De Marigny de Mandeville family 37
Debaene, Vincent 96
Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen (1789) 81
Delaney, Jim 28
Denis, Jacques 171
Depestre, René 119
Deslondes, Charles 51
DeVeaux, Scott 141
Diawara, Manthia 82
‘différé’ (repression of truth)
Condé, Maryse 227
Faulkner, William 218, 219, 220, 221, 225
Glissant, Édouard 220–1
Domota, Elie 85n13
Doré, Gustave 31
drums
gwoka 169
plantation culture 126
rhythm 117
Roumain, Jacques: Gouverneurs de la rosée 120, 122
Williams, Tony 159, 160
Durant, Amelie 72–3
Duras, Claire de: Ourika 51n8
Elder, Jacob D. 126n12
Éloge de la créolité (In Praise of Creoleness) 4
English language
Barbados 31
Cincinatti 27, 28
New Orleans 32
epic genre 192–3, 201
epidermalization 91
Esprit (journal) 137
ethnographers 26
Fanon, Frantz
Les Damnés de la terre 129, 138, 143–4
filiation 144
and jazz 9–10, 129, 130, 132, 138–40, 141, 144
influence on Obama, Barack 86
Peau noire, masques blancs 129, 131–2, 137–8
and racial identity 87, 91, 92, 129–30
‘Racisme et culture’ 138, 141–3
Faulkner, William
Absolom, Absolom! 200–1, 209, 211n20, 212, 216, 218, 224–5
African American students' response to 189
As I Lay Dying 223n6
and Condé, Maryse compared 223–8
and creolization 185–6
‘différé’ (repression of truth) 218, 219, 220, 221, 225
use of epic form 192–3
A Fable 199n3
and filiation 14, 188, 216–17, 223, 224–5
and Glissant, Édouard compared 219
Glissant, Édouard: Faulkner, Mississippi 11–12, 13, 14, 183, 184–95, 197, 198–212, 216, 219, 220
Go Down Moses 209, 217
guilt 224–5
and history 200
identity 200
influence 191–2
language 187, 190
and literary criticism 198
and miscegenation 217
and modernism 207, 208, 209, 210
and opacity 185, 186, 188, 194
(p.248) and otherness 190
use of racial descriptors 79
and Relation 210
and rhythm 211n20
and slavery 188, 216
The Sound and the Fury 225n8
style 207
and Tout-monde 198, 199n3
tragedy in 192
transgression in 224n7
translators of 208n16
the unknown in 209
Figaro (French newspaper) 77, 80
filiation
Condé, Maryse 226
and creolization 223
definition 216–17
Fanon, Frantz 129–30, 144
Faulkner, William 14, 188, 216–17, 223, 224–5
Obama, Barack 89
Foix, Alain 91
Forsdick, Charles 1, 2
Fortier, Alcée 41
France
abolition of slavery 51
Atlantic triangle 2
black community 81
citizenship 81
colonies, former 4
Creoles' connection to 73
discrimination 81–2
extreme right 135
and Louisiana 58, 59
métissage 80
response to Obama, Barack 77, 79, 80, 90–1
Peninsular War (1808)61
race 81–2
Vichy regime 137 see also Paris
‘Francophone’: definition 1–2
Francophone Caribbean Studies 3
Francophone Postcolonial Studies 1–3
Frederiksted (Santa Cruz) 33–4
free people of colour 58, 59–60, 62–3 see also Creoles
French language
Césaire, Aimé 4
Creoles' use of 66, 67
creolization of 21, 32
Hearn, Lafcadio 22, 25, 31–2
French Revolution
American fear of 51–2
cultural influences 3
Lussan, Auguste: La Famille créole 6, 47
Frobenius, Leo 132–3
Gallagher, Mary 185n4
genealogy
Louisiana 56, 57
Caribbean and Creole 64–5
Creole and African American 73–4
Creole v. African American 70–3
Creole v. Américain 65–8
Creole v. Black/White racial system 68–70
methodology 63–4
slaves 219–20
genre 201
Gillespie, Dizzy 135, 141, 148, 154
Gilroy, Paul 173
Glissant, Édouard 3
and aesthetics 203n8
on anthropology 105
‘La Barque ouverte’ 162
La Case du commandeur 207, 221n2
Un Champ d'Iles 157–8
La Cohée du Lamentin 152
‘Au plus obscur des musiques’ 148
and créolisation 88, 166, 168, 186
and Davis, Miles compared 10–11
(p.249) Le discours antillais 160–1, 166–7, 176, 183, 199, 200
‘L'espace d'une journée’ 152
essays 151, 160–1
Faulkner, Mississippi 11–12, 13, 14, 183, 184–95, 197, 198–212, 216, 219, 220
and Faulkner, William compared 219
French knowledge of 210n18
genres 201
Grands chaos 156–7
and Guadeloupe 177
and history 200, 222
and imagination 193–4
Les Indes 160, 162
influence 203–4
L'Intention poétique 160, 200, 210
L'Intraitable beauté du monde: adresse à Barack Obama 88, 90
and jazz 166–7
and language 147, 184, 191
La Lézarde 205, 211
on literature 209–10
Mahagony 208
Malemort 207
Martinican residence 82
Mémoires des esclavages 221
la mesure and la démesure 157, 158
on métissage 88–9, 168
‘Métissage et créolisation’ 77
mirroring 201, 207–8, 211
and modernism 13, 118–19, 204–5, 207
and music 147–8
and negation 205–6
Une nouvelle région du monde 203
novels 151
and opacity 183, 184, 185, 188–9, 203
Ormerod 199n3, 208
and otherness 189
Philosophie de la relation 155, 161, 203
‘Pour Mycea’ 158
‘Promenoir de la mort seule’ 158
use of punctuation 154–5, 157–8
Quand les murs tombent 177
Le Quatrième Siècle 13, 14, 202, 208, 211, 219–20, 220–3, 228
racial identity 216, 219
and realism 13
Relation, poetics of 160–1, 166, 167–8, 177, 189, 202–4, 211
Poétique de la relation 12n1, 147, 161, 168, 185
and rhythm 153–4, 156–7, 161, 211n20
Sartorius 198
Soleil de la conscience 204
spiral form 160–1
La Terre inquiète 154
and Tout-monde 168, 188–9, 194, 198–9
Traité du tout-monde 152
Tout-monde (novel) 198, 199n3, 211n20
on trace thought 149–50, 167
on translation 208n16
on Utopia 206–7
on writers' task 190
Goldhammer, Arthur 79
Goodman, Nelson 151, 161
Gourgouris, Stathis: Does Literature Think? 195
Grenada 35n20
Guadeloupe
autonomy 84
‘Creolization’ 11
music 172
gwoka 169, 170, 175
national identity 170, 176
(p.250) nationalism 173, 176–7
racial identity 224
guilt
Condé, Maryse 226
Faulkner, William 224–5
Gwo-Ka Masters 169, 174, 176
gwoka music 169, 170, 172, 175
and jazz compared 173–4
‘gwotet’ music 174
Haiti
American occupation 119
cultural dualism 119
modernity 118
music 121
poetry 119–20
revolution 3
Hallward, Peter 143
Hamon, Philippe 107
Hanger, Kimberly S. 52
Harlem Renaissance 168
Harrap's Dictionary: definition of métis 78
Harris, Wilson 191
Hawaii 84
Hearn, Lafcadio
‘American Period’ 22–3
anthropological/ethnological paradigm 26
‘At the Gate of the Tropics’ 33
on Barbados 31
‘Black Varieties’ 30
‘Les Chiffonniers’ 31
Chita 24, 28
‘The City of the South’ 31–2, 36
Creole folktales 25
créolité 8, 20–3, 35–7, 38
‘Los criollos’ 21
francophilia 22, 31
identity 19, 23
journalism 23–4, 31
Lafcadio Hearn's America: Ethnographic Sketches and Editorials 26
‘Levee Life’ 28, 30
literary trajectory in America 23–5
Martinique Sketches 25, 28
‘Memphis to New Orleans’ 25, 33
métissage, aesthetics of 29–32
A Midsummer Trip to the Tropics 25, 33–5, 37
and oral culture 28
and otherness 27
‘Pariah People’ 29, 31
proto-ethnographic work 24
song transcriptions 28
Two Years in the French West Indies 20–1, 25
‘A Winter Journey to Japan’ 25
Youma 25, 28
Hearn, Richard 22
history
Faulkner, William and 200
Glissant, Édouard and 200, 222
Martinique 108
regional 75
Hot Club de France 135
Hughes, Langston 160
Hugo, Victor
Bug-Jargal 51n8
Hernani 45
Hutchings, Vincent 92n14
hybridity 107
identities
‘American’ 57
black 131, 140
Carnival 125, 126
Condé, Maryse 216
Creoles 7, 60, 64, 68, 69, 73–4
Fanon, Frantz 129–30
Faulkner, William 200, 216
Glissant, Édouard 216
Louisiana 41, 42, 52, 53, 59, 60
(p.251) Lussan, Auguste 49
Obama, Barack 7–8, 86–8, 89
slaves 125–6 see also métissage
idiom 150–1
In Praise of Creoleness 4
incest 224–5, 227, 228
L'Insurgé (French newspaper) 135
Jackson, Michael 86
jazz
choruses 148n3
Davis, Miles and 10, 152–3, 162
Fanon, Frantz and 9–10, 129, 132, 138–40, 144
Glissant, Édouard on 166–7
guerre du jazz 135–6, 140
and gwoka compared 173–4
modern (bebop) 135, 139, 140–1, 143, 144
New Orleans 135, 139, 140
and racial purity 135
Senghor, Léopold Sédar and 132, 134
spread of 166
Jean, Alain 173
Jefferson, Thomas 50
jeunes maurrassiens 135
Johnson, Jerah 60
Kemedjio, Cilas 193
Kiavué, Klod 168–9, 173–4, 175
on créolité 172–3
King, Desmond 92n14
Konket, Guy 169
LA Creole 63
Lachance, Paul 61, 62
Ladd, Barbara 200
Ladrezeau, François 175
Lafontaine, Marie-Céine 170n8
Lalande, André 153
land: settlers' appropriation of 217
langage 149–50, 184
language
Barbados 31
Cincinnati 27, 28
Creole 32–3, 34, 85
English 27, 28, 31, 32
Faulkner, William 12, 187, 190
French
Césaire, Aimé 4
Creoles 66, 67
Creolization 21, 32
Hearn, Lafcadio 22, 25, 31–2
New Orleans 32–3
patois 37
Santa Cruz 34
Spanish 21–2
Latrobe, Benjamin Henry 57, 60
Le Diamant (Martinique) 102
Anse Cafard Memorial 82–3, 84f
election (1925) 97
Rue Barack Obama 82, 83
legitimacy 201
Locke, Alain 150
Lockel, Géard 170, 171
Loi de laïité (1905) 81
Louisiana 3
Americanization of 52, 60, 62
coartación 59
attachment to France 3
genealogical research
Caribbean and Creole 64–5
Creole and African American 73–4
Creole v. African American 70–3
Creole v. Américain 65–8
Creole v. Black/White racial system 68–70
methodology 63–4
identity politics 41, 42, 53
Lussan, Auguste: La Famille créole 48–52
plaçage 58, 59
race 7, 58, 59–61
(p.252) revolution (1768) 41
slave rebellion (1795) 50–1
theatres 41 see also New Orleans
Louisiana Purchase (1803) 60
Lubat, Bernard 148
Lussan, Auguste
La Famille créole 6
colonial life 43, 45–6
emotions 44–5, 49
French Revolution 6, 47–8
identity politics 49
as melodrama 41, 45, 53
Paris 42, 45, 46, 47–8
political issues 50, 51, 52, 53
slavery 51
identity 41
Les Martyrs de la Louisiane 41
mirroring 48
lyric genre 201
Mabry, Marcus 79n6
Macey, David 9–10, 129, 130, 138
Macherey, Pierre: Pour une théorie de la production littéraire 218–19
Mangeon, Anthony 150
Maritain, Jacques 136–7
Art et scolastique 136
marriages, mixed 58, 65–6 see also plaçage
Marsh, Dave 115, 116
Marshall, Bill 3
Martin, Denis-Constant 165, 166, 167–8
Martinique
anthropology 95, 97–9
autonomy 84
Creole aesthetic 35
Creole dialect 32–3
créolistes 98n1
Créolité 4–5
creolization of Obama, Barack 7–8, 77–8, 83, 84
Diamond Rock 83n11, 84f
attachment to France 125
Hearn, Lafcadio and 26, 28–9
history 108
Lyannaj Kont Pwofitasyon (Union Against Profit) 85n13 see also Le Diamant; Petite-Anse; St Pierre
Maulpoix, Jean-Michel 210n18
Maurras, Charles 135, 136
Médard Aribot 95, 97, 101, 102, 103, 108
memory: Price, Richard: The Convict and the Colonel 108
la mesure and la démesure
[moderation and excess]
Davis, Miles 159
Glissant, Édouard 157, 158
metaphors
Condé, Maryse 225
culinary 85
Glissant, Édouard 151
métis: definition 77, 78, 79, 80
métissage
and Creolization contrasted 7, 77, 88–9
Hearn, Lafcadio and 29–32
and multiculturalism 80
Obama, Barack and 79, 80, 82
and Relation 167–8
Métraux, Alfred 117
Miller, Christopher L.: The French Atlantic Triangle: Literature and Culture of the Slave Trade 2–3
Mintz, Sidney: Caribbean Contours 5
Miró, Governor 52
mirroring 3
Glissant, Édouard 201, 207–8, 211
Lussan, Auguste 48
Price, Richard 97
racial labels 72
miscegenation
aesthetics of 29
Condé, Maryse and 224
(p.253) Faulkner, William and 217, 225
and filiation 216
illegality of 88
and métissage contrasted 79
mixed marriages 66
modernism
Faulkner, William and 207, 208, 209, 210
Glissant, Édouard and 13, 118–19, 204–5, 207
and knowledge 208
Molinié, George 156
Le Monde (French newspaper) 81
Monk, Thelonius 135, 161–2
Montray Kreyol (website) 87
Mounier, Emmanuel 137
mulâtres (‘mulattos’) 79
Murphy, David 1, 2
Murray, David
Creole Project 171, 175, 176
and créolité 172
and Kiavué, Klod 168–9, 173–4
musicianship 174–5
music 167
African American 166, 171
biguine 167, 169
blues 140–1, 142, 174
Creole 119
Davis, Miles on 156
funk 115
Glissant, Édouard and 147–8
Guadeloupe 169, 170, 172
gwoka 169, 170, 172, 173–4, 175
‘gwotet’ 174
improvisation 162
and literature 151
nègre 134
quadrille 169
rap 156
slaves and 9, 142, 150
and style 148
world 174 see also jazz; rhythm; songs
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques 175
Nau, Émile 118
Négoce (accordionist) 176
nègre culture’ 132–3, 133–4
Negrit, Frederic 169
négritude
Créolité movement's challenge to 4
and culture 168
Fanon, Frantz and 137
Guadeloupe 177
Sartre, Jean-Paul and 143n8
Senghor, Léopold Sédar and 10, 130 see also blackness
Nesbitt, Nick 118
New Orleans
cultural intolerance 60
French Theater 42
genealogical research see under Louisiana
Hearn, Lafcadio on 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30–1, 31–2, 33, 35–7
history 57
incorporation 65n5
language 32–3
municipalities 67
racial identity 35, 56, 58–9
refugees 7, 40, 46, 50, 53, 56, 61–3 see also Louisiana
New York Times 81
Newton, Lewis William 41
nostalgia 100, 133, 139
Le Nouvel Observateur (French newspaper) 79
Obama, Barack
and African Diaspora 88
creolization 7–8, 77–8, 79, 80, 91
election campaign 92n14
filiation 89
racial identity 7–8, 86–8, 89–90
France 78, 79, 80, 82, 90–1
Martinique 77–8, 83, 91
(p.254) ‘Obama martiniquais’ (video) 84–6
Ohio 27, 30 see also Cincinnati
‘One-Drop Rule’ 79
opacity
Faulkner, William 185, 186, 188, 194
Glissant, Édouard 183, 184, 185, 188–9, 203
oral culture 28, 66
O'Reilly, Alejandro 59
‘original sin’ 217, 219
otherness 27, 189, 190
Panassié, Hugues 137, 139
Le jazz hot 134, 135, 136
Paris 42, 45, 46, 47–8, 49
Parker, Charlie 135
Pavel, Thomas 107
Peninsular War (1808) 61
Pétion, Alexandre 121
Petit Robert (dictionary): definition of ‘créole 173
Petite-Anse (Martinique) 98–9, 100, 101, 104n2
Pettigrew, Thomas 92n14
Pitot, Jean (James) 65, 66
Pitot House, Bayou St John 66
plaçage 58, 59
plantations 3, 33, 113
poetics 203n8
poetry
Glissant, Édouard on 208
Haitian 119–20
‘postcolonial’: definition 1
Pratt, Mary Louise 25–6
Price, Richard
The Convict and the Colonel 8–9
anthropology 96, 97–9
autobiography 95, 97, 99–100
créolité 100
distancing 101
fiction 96, 103, 104
French translation 108n5
hybridity 107–8
literary technique 107
memory 108
methodology 105
mirroring 97
nostalgia 100
créolistes' criticism of 98
First Time: The Historical Vision of an Afro-American People 96
mirroring 97
reputation 99
‘Shadowboxing in the Mangrove’ 99
Price, Sally 98
Caribbean Contours 5
‘Shadowboxing in the Mangrove’ 99
Price-Mars, Jean 119
quadrille (musical genre) 169
race
and Creolization 186
France 81
Louisiana 58–61
and rhythm 125
race hatred 233–4, 238
racial discrimination
France 81–2
United States 91n14, 231, 232, 235, 237–8
racial mixing 56, 216 see also métissage; miscegenation
racial oppression 143–4
racial prejudice 73
racial segregation 71
racial violence 92n14, 236
racism
colonial 141–2
and métissage 79, 80, 91
Rancière, Jacques 205n12
rap music 156
refugees: New Orleans 7, 40, 46, 50, 53, 61–3
(p.255) Relation
and créolisation 168, 176
ethnography of 105
Faulkner, William 194, 210
Glissant, Édouard 160–1, 166, 167, 177, 189, 202–4, 211
Obama, Barack 89–90, 91
revolutions
America 15
France 3, 6, 47
Haiti 3
Louisiana 41
rhythm 114, 116
Saint-Domingue 6, 40, 44
rhythm 134
aesthetic 156
Brown, James 114–15
and change 127
and creolization 122–7
Davis, Miles 156, 158–9, 161–2
Faulkner, William 211n20
Glissant, Édouard 153–4, 156–7, 161, 211n20
Haiti 117–22
Lalande, André on 153
music and poetry 151
and race 125
Roumain, Jacques 120–1, 122
Sauvenet, Pierre on 153
slaves 113, 121
spiral form
Davis, Miles 159–60
Glissant, Édouard 160–1
Zobel, Joseph 122–4, 125
Rollins, Sonny 154
Romantics, French 51
Rose, Cynthia 115n1
Rosen, Charles 148
Roumain, Jacques: Gouverneurs de la rosée 120–2
Rousselin, Pierre 77
Rueff, Martin 210n18
Saint-Domingue (Haiti)
Lussan, Auguste: La Famille créole 43–5
refugees from 7, 40, 46, 61–3
revolution 6, 40, 44, 61
slave uprising 40, 50, 61
Saint-Domingue Special Interest Group 63
St Pierre (Martinique) 34–5
Santa Cruz see Frederiksted
Sartre, Jean-Paul: ‘Orphée noir’ 143n8
Sauvenet, Pierre 153
Schnepel, Ellen 170n8
Schwarz-Bart, Jacques 175n16
Senghor, Léopold Sédar
‘Ce que l'homme noir apporte’ 131, 132, 134, 140
and jazz 132, 134
and négritude 10, 130
politics of 137
sexual relationships, interracial 58 see also métissage; miscegenation
slave trade 2–3, 162
slavery
abolition of 51
‘abyss’ of 13
Condé, Maryse: Traversée de la mangrove 227–8
and creolization 14
and cultural erasure 172
Faulkner, William and 188
Hearn, Lafcadio on 22, 28
Youma 25
Obama family's inheritence of 89–90
as ‘original sin’ 217
and plaçage 58
slaves
and Americanization process 60–1
and coartación 58
dances 126
former 27, 29, 30, 58
genealogies 219–20
(p.256) and identity 125–6
language 12, 37
and métissage 79
and music 9, 142, 150
New Orleans 60
and rhythm 113, 121
complicity in slavery 220, 221
uprisings 40, 50–1, 61
whites' parody of 126
Smith, Rogers M. 92n14
songs: Lafcadio Hearn's transcriptions 28
Souriau, Etienne 148
Spain 58–60, 61
Spanish language 21–2
Staiger, Emil: Basic Concepts of Poetics 201n6
Strobel, Michèle-Baj: Les Gens de l'or 106
Stuempfle, Stephen 126n13
style
Barthes, Roland on 151
and content 107
Davis, Miles 152–3, 154, 162–3
Faulkner, William 207
Glissant, Édouard 148, 149, 152, 154–5, 162–3, 207–8
Goodman, Nelson on 151, 161
Price, Richard 101–3, 104–5, 105–6
Sue, Eugène 31
swaré léwòz (outdoor celebrations) 169
Taylor, Timothy 174, 176
theatres 41
three-class system 71
Tournès, Ludovic 135
Tout-monde
Faulkner, William 198, 199n3
Glissant, Édouard 168, 177, 188–9, 194, 198–9
Transnational French Studies: Postcolonialism and Littérature-Monde 2
travel books 25–6
Treaty of Paris (1763) 58
Trethewey, Natasha 88
Trinidad 125, 126
Trouillot, Lyonel 122
truth, repression of see ‘différé’
Turino, Thomas 166, 170
Turner, Nat 51
Ulloa y de la Torre Guiral, Antonio de 59
Utopia 206–7
Valère, Laurent: Anse Cafard Memorial, Martinique 83, 84f
van Allen Caulfield, Ruby 41–2
Varèse, Edgar 159
Vergès, Françoise 10, 129–30
Monsters and Revolutionaries 80
Vesey, Denmark 51
Vignes, Luc Michaux 175
Vincent, Rickey 115n1
Virginia slave rebellions 50, 51
Weil, Kurt: Mahagonny 206n14
Werner, Craig 116n2
whiteness: Creoles and 64, 65, 68–9, 70
whites
and creolization 186
parody of 126
suffering of 188
Wiedorn, Michael 208
Williams, Tony 159, 160
Zé, Tom 171
Zobel, Joseph: La Rue cases-nègres 122–5
zouk music 170
Zuma, Jacob 86