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Civilians and War in Europe, 1618–1815$
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Erica Charters, Eve Rosenhaft, and Hannah Smith

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9781846317118

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.5949/UPO9781846317699

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PRINTED FROM LIVERPOOL SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.liverpool.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Liverpool University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in LSO for personal use.date: 28 May 2020

Restricted Violence? Military Occupation during the Eighteenth Century

Restricted Violence? Military Occupation during the Eighteenth Century

(p.118) 8 Restricted Violence? Military Occupation during the Eighteenth Century
Civilians and War in Europe, 1618–1815

Horst Carl

Liverpool University Press

Based on international law, military occupation, which is defined as a legally and customarily defined situation that differs from military conquest, territorial annexation, or regime change, is, as a phenomenon, central to the relationship between civilians and war. This chapter challenges the notion that military occupation has been a transhistorical feature of war since ancient times and argues that it has a historically specific character in the context of warfare in continental Europe. Military occupation is both an index and a component of the ‘bureaucratisation’ or rationalisation of war. The chapter examines the administration of occupation in the German territories during the mid-eighteenth century, focusing on the development of a regulated system of payments, billeting, and political intervention as well as arbitrary violence during occupation. It also considers irregular warfare, or kleiner Krieg, and how patriotism undermined efforts directed towards the ‘containment’ of war.

Keywords:   Europe, international law, military occupation, military conquest, civilians, payments, billeting, violence, kleiner Krieg, patriotism

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