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French CyclingA Social and Cultural History$

Hugh Dauncey

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9781846318351

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: June 2013

DOI: 10.5949/UPO9781846317859

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PRINTED FROM LIVERPOOL SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.liverpool.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Liverpool University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in LSO for personal use.date: 21 September 2021

(p.271) Index

(p.271) Index

Source:
French Cycling
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
24 heures d'Auvergne race, 217
Aarhus Grand Prix, 181
ACP, 94, 105–6
Adshel, 221
advertising, 2, 56, 64, 77–9, 81–2, 95, 101, 110, 112, 114, 116, 149, 161, 164, 173, 205, 221, 223–5, 231
AF3V, 232
AFCAS, 162
AFMB, 196–8, 217
Agence de l'Environnement et de la maîtrise de l'energie, 189
Agence de promotion de la création industrielle, 189
Agence de promotion de la création industrielle, see ‘ACPI’
Agence générale vélocipédique, 95
Agulhon, Maurice, 19
Aimar, Lucien, 227
AIOCC, 162
Alcyon team, 110–11, 113, 121, 152
Alençon, Emilienne d', 38
Algeria, 147
Allen, Mark, 217
Alliance Vélocipédique de France, 46
Alps, 89, 236, 242
Alsace, 20, 69, 88, 227, 242
altermondialisme, 231
alternative voices, 9, 13, 46, 94, 103, 108, 121, 127, 173, 176–7, 212, 220, 229–31, 241, 249
on professional cycling, 176
on touring (Vélocio), 94
Althuser, J., 12
Amar, Marianne, 129, 140
amateur vs. professional, 22, 46–7, 49, 54, 69, 72–4, 138, 141, 166
amateurism, 2, 8, 10, 22, 26–8, 35, 45–51, 54–6, 66–9, 72–4, 92–3, 95, 117, 121, 127, 138–41, 155, 163, 166, 181, 195, 196, 199, 209, 218, 227–8, 255
definition, 74
ethics, 51
open races, 56
shamateurism, 53
Amaury Sport Organisation, see ‘ASO’
Amaury, Emilien, 136, 226
influence at Liberation, 136
American Anti-Doping Agency, see ‘USADA’
Americanization, 7, 150–1, 235
Amis de la Terre, 178, 230
Amsterdam, 147
Andros, sponsor, 205
Anfield Bicycle Club, 53
Angers–Tours race, 31
Anglade, Henri, 162
Anglo-French rivalry, 68–70
Anglomania, 26
Anglo-Saxon countries, 67, 69–70, 173, 211
Années folles, les, 102, 104, 105
growth of sport-spectacle, 108
need for entertainment, 103, 108, 117
Anquetil, Jacques, 4, 142, 148–9, 160, 162–72, 181, 184, 237, 246, 251, 253
defence of doping, 165, 168–9
‘insolent facility’, 167, 169
relations with peloton, 171
sporting technocrat, 166, 167
Antenne 2, now France 2, 199
anti-Americanism, 186, 235
Antwerp world championships 1894, 67
ANVAR, 216
APCI, 189–90
APCI Etoile du design, 190
Appel aux sportifs, 132
Aragon, Louis, 148, 253
archaism, 78, 172
Ardéchoise, l', ride, 241, 246
Armor team, 111
Armstrong, Lance, 3–4, 13, 216, 218–9, 233–8, 242, 246, 252–5
American ‘other’, 1, 27, 67, 186, 233, 235
and cycling traditions, 235
(p.272) and France, 234, 252
doping accusations, 207, 237
press vendetta, 237
riding as a business, 236
army, 9, 63, 76, 82, 104, 129, 132, 181
army cycling, 91
artisans-cadreurs, 193, 194
ASO, 184, 226, 228, 236, 238
Aspin, col d', 89
Association française de développement des véloroutes et voies vertes, see ‘AF3V’
Association française de mountainbike, see ‘AFMB’
Association française des constructeurs et associés sportifs, see ‘AFCAS’
Association internationale des organisateurs de courses cyclistes, see ‘AIOCC’
Association sportive du vélo toutterrain, see ‘ASVTT’
Association Vélocipédique d'Amateurs, see ‘AVA’
associationnisme, see ‘clubs’
associations, 7, 16–23, 27, 40, 45, 67, 72, 91, 123, 139, 195, 220, 225, 229, 231, 244, 248, see also ‘clubs’
Astérix complex, 143, 172, 253
ASVTT, 155
Athens championships 1960, 181
Atlanta championships 1984, 183
Atout France, see ‘ATOUT’
ATOUT, tourism body, 239–40, 242–44, 246
Aubisque, col de l', 89
Audax club parisien, l', see ‘ACP’, 94, 105
audax rides, 94, 98, 105–6
Augé, Marc, 119
Augendre, Jacques, 177, 185
Australia, 216
Austria, 240
Auteuil race course, 64
Auto, L', 4, 6, 63, 65, 84–6, 88–9, 94, 95, 100, 103, 105–06, 109–16, 121, 123–5, 130–5, 139, 142, 157, 176, 249
‘le journal des industriels’, 65, 84
ban, 139
becomes L'Auto-Soldat, 131
during Second World War, 131
in Liberation, 134
Automobile Club de France, 64
Automoto team, 111
Auto-Soldat, L', 131
AuTour des Féminines, 213
Auto-Vélo, L', 9, 33, 43, 54, 56, 59–65, 71, 74, 76, 84, 249
AVA, 47, 48, 49
Avignon, 199, 231
Baduel, William, 74
Bahamontes, Federico, 162, 168
Bale, John, 117–120
Ballanger, Félicia, 178, 183, 206
Ballon d'Alsace, 89, 227
Barcelona Olympics 1992, 183, 217
Bartali, Gino, 116, 146, 148, 161, 233
Barthes, Roland, 3, 6, 13, 173, 254
Bastide, Roger, 167, 184
Bastien, Louis, 74
Bates, J.E.L., 53
Baudry de Saunier, Louis, 31, 61
Baugé, Alphonse, 111
Bayet, Albert, 136
BDPME, 216
Becker, Jean-Jacques, 117
Belfort, Tour stage, 88
Belgium, 38, 66, 70–1, 88, 113, 121, 126, 128, 143, 163, 181, 184, 189, 219, 240
Belle Epoque, 13, 31, 42, 75–8, 87, 91, 94, 100, 187, 249, 254–5
Bellencontre, Dr, 35
Bellos, David, 151
Benneworth, Paul, 216
Bercy, Palais Omnisports, 118
Berlin Olympics 1936, 107, 127
Berlin World's 1901, 71
Bernard, Tristan, 58, 173
Berstein, Serge, 117
Berthier, Jack, 155
Besançon club, 29
Besson, Emile, 177
betting, 117, 141
Beukelaer, Emile de, 71
Bibliothéque nationale de France conference 2003, 218, 245
Bicycle Union, 46
Bicyclette, La, 40, 60, 62
bienfait social, un, 55–6, 62, 98, 255
today, 254
Billet, Roger, 217
Birmingham, UK, 80
Blondin, Antoine, 6, 173–5, 185
reinventing French sport, 174
Blum, Léon, 107
(p.273) BMX, 13, 154, 158
Boardman, Chris, 178
Bobet, Louison, 131, 143, 145–9, 160–2, 166–8, 170, 251, 253
Bobin, Robert, 182
Bodard, Lucien, 173
Boeuf, Jean-Luc, 5, 132–3, 136, 157
Bois de Boulogne, 38, 91
Bois de Vincennes, velodrome & MTBs, 57, 155
Bondue, Alain, 183
Bordeaux, 8, 18, 20–3, 26, 28–30, 34–5, 37, 43, 52–60, 64–5, 77, 82–3, 85–6, 93, 95, 101, 136, 142, 171, 205, 221, 231, 249, 255
Saint-Augustin velodrome, 57
Bordeaux–Paris race, 8, 20, 28, 30, 52–9, 64–5, 82, 83, 85, 93, 101, 142, 171, 249, 255
inaugural, 52, 60
Bordenave, Yves, 177
Borotra, Jean, 137–8
Bott, François, 6
Boucherie, Raymond, 125
Boué, Jean, 212
Bouhours, veteran rider, 126
Boulanger, General Georges, 44
Bourg-en-Bresse, 181
bourgeoisie, 15, 17, 21, 23–6, 28, 30–1, 38–9, 44, 93, 108, 112, 117, 122, 126, 235
bourgeoisie populaire, 25
Bourgogne, wine region, 242
BP, as sponsor, 142
brakes, 82, 156
Brambilla, Pierre, 143, 146, 157
Brasseur, B., 117
Bréguet-Michel planes, 83
Brest, 54–6, 60, 82, 88, 106, 127, 255
Brevet de cycliste combattant, 92
Brevet routier, 92
brevets, 92, 94, 105, 106, 127
Brevets audax, 127
Brevets de randonneurs français, 105
Breyer, Victor, 61, 69, 71, 105
bricolage, DIY, 155
Britain and British, 1–2, 5, 12, 14, 18, 21, 24, 26–9, 32–5, 43–5, 47–9, 53–6, 60, 66–70, 77, 79–80, 82–3, 101, 118, 168, 178, 186, 189, 193, 211, 240, 245–6, 248–9
amateurism, 35, 47, 53–4, 67
bicycles, 79
influence, 21, 49
le modéle anglais of sport, 47, 62
riders, 53–6
sporting values, 32–3, 47
British Cyclists' Touring Club, 48
Brittany, 18, 55, 127, 143, 145, 148, 166, 217, 230
Brussels, 149, 224
Cyclocity, 224
Bruyneel, Johan, 236
Budapest, 233
Bush, President George W., 234
Cacérès, Benigno, 107, 109, 247
Caen, 136
Cahard, Yavé, 182–3
Californian sports, 154, 191, 216
definition, 216
Calléde, Jean-Paul, 105
Calvet, Jacques, 162, 164–5, 169, 171
Camoriano, Attilio, 177
Campos, Christophe, 3, 89
Canada, 211
Canadian Cyclists' Association, 71
Canal Plus, 175, 199
Canins, Maria, 211
Cape Cyclists' Union, 70
car industry, 64
caravane rouge, 126
Carignon, Alain, 208
Caron, François, 78–9
Carpentier, l'effet, 170
Carpentras, 29
cars, 9, 44, 64, 77, 81–4, 93, 106, 131, 229–30, 248
Cavendish, Mark, 249
CCTF, 199, 217
Ce Soir, 148, 253
Centres permanents d'entraînement et de formation, 183
Cercle des vélocipédistes de Carpentras, 17
CGEGS, 137, 138
Chaillot, André, 177
chain, 152
chain drive, 12
Chambre économique de la Loire, 217
Chambre syndicale des fabricants français de vélocipèdes, 56
champagne, 167, 169, 237, 246
Champs-Elysées, podium, 254
Chany, Pierre, 59, 146, 177, 202
Charenton, race track, 58
Charléty stadium, 119
Charte du vélo, 222
(p.274) Chartres, 29
cheating, 2, 86–7, 89, 98, 107, 110–11, 143
Chemin, Michel, 206, 208
Cherbourg, 230
Chicago, 67, 68
Chiche!, 231
China, 230
Chirac, President Jacques, 208, 217
Cholet, Jean-Claude, 216
chronology of French cycling, 10, 12, 247
Ciprelli, Patrice, 203, 205, 207
Circuit de France, 133–4
citoyens-soldats, 20, 21, 105
civilisation de loisirs, la 109, 247
Civry, Frédéric de, 31,-2
classics, 65, 93, 121, 153, 236
Clear Channel, 224–5
Clément company, 32, 34, 64, 77, 80, 93
Adolphe, 61
Gaston, 105–6
Clerc, Clovis, 58, 74
Clermont-Ferrand, 81, 83, 134, 222
Club des Villes Cyclables, 201
clubs, 7, 8, 10, 16–29, 34, 40–1, 43, 45–50, 52–3, 56–7, 60, 66, 73, 90–4, 101, 106, 139, 195, 198–9, 226–27, 229, 242, 243, 248
and competitions, 199
democratization, 20–1, 90
distribution, 18
membership, 91, 139, 243
CNOSF, 199, 217
CNPC, 239–40, 246
CNVTT, 198
coaching, 25, 165, 178, 183–4
methods, 33
national system, 182–4
Code de la route, 244–6
Code de la rue, 231, 244, 246
aims, 246
Cognac (Charente), 29
Col de la République, 87
Colas, Fabrice, 183
Colette, 6, 173
collaboration, 48, 123, 129, 134, 139, 143, 223, 245
Cologne, world championships 1895, 67
Colombes, Stade de, 119
Colombey-les-deux-Eglises, 253
Columbus tubes, 194
Comité de suivi de la politique du vélo, see ‘CSPV’
Comité national pour le développement du triathlon, 199
Comité national pour le développement du triathlon, see ‘Conadet’, 199, 217
commemoration places, 118
Commissariat général à l'éducation générale et aux sports, see ‘CGEGS’
Commission de coordination du triathlon en France, see ‘CCTF’
Commission nationale du VTT, see ‘CNVTT’
Commission permanente interfédérations du cyclisme, 228
commodification, 116
Communauté urbaine de Strasbourg, see ‘CUS’
Commune de Paris, 15, 17, 29, 44
communism, 123
Communist Party (PCF), 176
commuting, 9, 10, 154, 156, 220, 222, 243, 252
Compagnie parisienne de bicycles, 29
competitions, 23, 29, 34, 41, 45, 48–9, 58–9, 65, 67, 72–3, 92, 96, 104, 108, 112, 115, 118, 121, 126, 129, 141–2, 163–4, 168, 182, 193, 197, 199, 202, 213, 228, 255
French model, 33
international, 180
maturity, 51
components, 9, 33, 79–80, 152, 156, 161, 186–9, 190, 215–6
high-tech, 187, 250
sector, 33, 142, 190, 239, 240
Conadet, 199, 217
conceptualization of cycling, 247
congés payés (paid holidays), 8, 103, 108–9
conspicuous consumption, 27, 189
consumer society, 161, 200
Cooke, Ruadhán, 174, 185
Coordonnateur interministériel pour le (p.275) développement de l'usage du vélo see also ‘Monsieur Vélo’
Copenhagen, 68, 181
Coppi, Fausto, 146, 148, 161, 171, 233
Coq Sportif, Le, 217
Coquelle, Robert, 61
Cordy, Annie, 121
Cornet, Henri, 87, 147
corps intermédiaires, 40
Cosson, Victor, 116
Coubertin, baron Pierre de, 26, 27, 63
Coulliboeuf, Henry, 53, 56
Coventry, 80
Cox, Peter, 7
creatine, 207, 208
Crédit Lyonnais, sponsor, 238
Crépeau, Michel, 201
Critical Mass movement, 229–30, 244
Croisé-Laroche hippodrome, 123, 125
Croix du Nord, La, 125
Cross de L'Humanité, le, 108
Crow, Sheryl, 234
CSPV, 220
Cuffy (Cher), 233
culte de la performance, le, 120
cultural significance, 10, 15, 120, 233, 246
CUS, 222, 245
cycle
design, 8–9, 12, 14, 33, 36, 41, 81, 95–6, 101, 112, 118–120, 153, 156, 158, 187, 189, 192, 194
in culture and society, 247
moyen d'émancipation, 94
ownership, 79, 102, 239
ownership by type, 240
prices, 16, 26, 31–2, 39, 45, 79, 90–1, 95, 104, 109, 111, 114, 141, 152, 161, 187, 192, 196, 225, 248
routes, 178, 232, 244
taxation, 49, 79, 102, 152, 166, 246
working-class symbol, 108
Cycle magazine, Le, 190
cycle-hire schemes, 10, 189, 191, 216, 222–5, 229–30, 239, 244, 252
price, 223
vandalism, 225
Cycles Follis, 188, 193, 194, 215, 239
Cycleurope Industrie, 241
cycling
and cinema, 109, 131, 150–2, 157, 175
and military efficiency, 91
and society, 23
and traditions, 34
as revolution, 250, 255
defining modernity, 34
diversification, 25
Fête Nationale de la bicyclette, 109
for all, 229, 246
fun and festivity, 23, 114–5, 126, 149, 254
leisure and utility, 238
means of transport, 109
pleasure, 25, 31, 56, 72, 109, 117, 139, 251, 255
progress or nostalgia, 251
statistics, 195, 240–1, 246
the body, 36, 40, 94, 149, 207
transformation of, 186, 215
Cycling Weekly, 249
Cycliste forézien, Le, 95
Cycliste, Le, 94–9
Cyclists' Touring Club, 46
Cyclo du Morbihan, la, ride, 229
Cyclocity (Brussels), 224
cyclo-cross, 155, 202
cyclodidacte, 230
cyclomoteur, 152–3
cyclosportive rides, 100, 226–9, 232, 241–2, 244, 246
cyclotourisme, see ‘touring’
CycloTrans-Européenne, 232
Dames bordelaises, les, 37–8
Darracq company, 64
Dauphiné-Libéré, le, race, 171
Dax velodrome, 57
de Dion, comte Jules-Albert, 63–4, 84
de Dion-Bollée cars, 83
de Gaulle, President/General Charles, 159, 169, 171–2, 174, 179, 180–1, 185, 200
French grandeur, 180–1
the state, 159
Décathlon, 188–90, 193, 198, 239, 241
Decaux, JC, 223–5, 245
Dedacciai frames, 194
Defraye, Odile, 101, 110
Delanoë, Bertrand, 224, 229
Démier, Francis, 44, 75
(p.276) democracy, 19, 20–1, 24, 28, 43–4, 183
democratization, 16, 21, 57, 86, 90, 115
of ownership, 90
sport for all, 117
Denmark, 182, 189, 240
Déon, Bernard, 176
Depine, Franck, 183
Desgrange, Henri, 27, 38, 55–6, 58–9, 61, 62–5, 71, 74–7, 84–90, 94–6, 98–101, 103, 105–06, 108–16, 118, 121–5, 127–8, 131–3, 135, 161, 251, 254–5
les années Desgrange, 109
own theory of racing, 86
tête et les jambes, la, 55, 86, 251, 254
view of sport, 122
Desgraves, Louis, 21
Développer l'usage du vélo dans notre vie quotidienne, 221
Dewaele, Maurice, 111
DGCIS, 239, 246
Didier-Nauts, 74
Dietschy, Paul, 103
Dieux du stade, les, film, 105, 127
Dijon, 134, 216
Dine, Philip, 4–5, 128–9, 170, 172, 174–5
Direction générale de la compétitivité de l'industrie et des services, see ‘DGCIS’
distance cycled, 10, 31, 33, 46, 58, 77, 85, 93–4, 98, 105–6, 112, 119, 134, 240, 243
distribution and retail, 80, 118, 187–8, 193, 215
methods, 187
new distributors, 188
doping, 8, 66, 107, 111, 164–6, 168–9, 207, 209, 218, 231, 234–5, 237–8, 246, 252, 254
drug culture, 168
medicalization, 168
new pressures, 164
repression and testing, 165, 168, 206, 238, 254
the law, 168
Tour's intrinsic flaw, 254
Dreyfus Affair, 44, 63–4, 75
Drieu de la Rochelle, Pierre, 157
Drouet, François, 29
Ducoin, Emmanuel, 174, 185, 218
Duda, Jean, 155
Dumont, René, 230
Duncan, H.O., 31–2, 43, 60, 79
Dunlop tyres, 12, 82, 121
Dunn, René, 166
Dupeux, Georges, 21
Dupont, André, 230
Durand, Camille, 106
Durry, Jean, 19–20, 22–3, 28, 30, 40–1, 51–2, 54, 114
Dutrieu, Hélène, 38
East Germany (GDR), 182
Ecole aéronautique de Saint-Cyr, 192
Ecole normale supérieure d'éducation physique, 182
ecomobility, 222, 229
economic background, 9, 16, 76–9, 130, 152, 157, 190, 248
Edge, Selwyn, 53
Ehrenberg, Alain, 31
Eiffel Tower, 76, 115, 118
Eisenhower, President Dwight, 73
Elans, newspaper, 135
elite, 1, 15, 16, 23–24, 27, 64, 76, 90, 93, 154, 165, 167, 178–84, 213, 215–6, 228, 236, 239
emobility, 219, 223
Enghien, race track, 29
English model of sports, 16, 54
English National Cyclists' Union, 70
entertainment, see ‘spectacle’
entrepreneurship, 27, 52, 78–9, 83, 99, 101, 127, 172, 188, 216
environmentalism, 11, 33, 45, 118, 189, 191, 200–01, 219–20, 230, 232–3, 239, 244–5, 248, 250
EPO, 207, 214, 233
Equipe, L', 4, 63, 100, 131, 135–6, 141, 142, 161–2, 173–7, 217–8, 235, 238, 249
origins, 135
reborn, 139
Equipée belle, L', 132
Essel, Jacques, 200
Etape de Légende, l', 22–7, 241
Etape du Tour, l', 127, 226, 232, 241
Eurovéloroute des fleuves, 233
Evans, Cadel, 216
everyday cycling, 56, 96, 130, 149, 152, 154, 157, 195, 201, 221, 229, 244–5
Exhibition, see ‘Exposition’, 76
(p.277) Exposition Universelle, 47, 57, 72, 75, 77, 82, 115, 118
extra-sportif sponsor, 142–3, 149, 161, 172
extreme racing, 58
Faber, François, 110
Faidherbe, General, 43
Faizant, Jacques, 185
Faroux, Charles, 132
fashionable leisure, 191
Fauquez, Dr, 37
Faure, rider, 87
Fayol, Henri, 80, 101
FCAF, 51
Fédération cycliste des amateurs français, see ‘FCAF’
Fédération cycliste lyonnaise, 51
Fédération française de cyclisme, see ‘FFC’
Fédération française de cyclotourisme, see ‘FFCT’
Fédération française de triathlon, see ‘FFTri’
Fédération française des sociétés de cyclotourisme, see ‘FFSC’
Fédération française des usagers de la bicyclette, 246
Fédération nationale de la presse, 136
Fédération sportive du travail, 123
Fédération sportive et gymnique du travail, see ‘FSGT’
Fédération vélocipédique du Nord, see ‘FVDN’
federations, 10, 17, 30, 43, 45–51, 66–7, 71, 73, 92–3, 103, 106, 108, 121, 138–40, 155–6, 176, 179, 180, 196–9, 202, 205–6, 211, 216–7, 228, 235, 242–3, 248
regional, 46, 47, 60
rivalry, 47
structure, 187 see also ‘governing bodies’
Fête Nationale de la bicyclette, 109
FFCT, 138–9, 198, 217, 242
FFSC, 106, 127, 138, 139
FFTri, 199, 243
Fifth Republic, 11, 159
Figaro, Le, 62, 185, 225
Fignon, Laurent, 186, 215–6, 229
la Laurent Fignon ride, 229
First World War, 11, 26, 66, 73, 75–6, 83, 87, 102–03, 110, 115, 117, 127, 131
effects on sport and leisure, 103–04
Follis, François, 193
Follis, Joseph, 193
Follis, Myriam, 193
Fontaine, M., 122
forçats de la route, les, 4, 13, 108–9, 122, 123
forçats du Larousse, les, 174
Foucault, Michel, panopticism, 119
Fourastié, Jean, 16, 24, 159
Fourth Republic, 11, 127, 130, 136, 140, 143, 145, 147, 149, 154, 157, 159, 171–2, 179, 181, 246
institutions and sport, 139–41
the practice of cycling, 141–3
frames, 12, 18, 24, 33, 36, 77, 82, 152, 153, 161, 187–94, 215–6, 239, 250
builders, 24, 33, 82, 188, 193–4
Français et le vélo, Les, survey, 239
Française, La company, 87
France profonde, la, 151, 172
France qui gagne, une, 160, 172, 184, 204
France socialiste, La, 133–4
France-Soir, 166
Franco-Prussian war, 12, 15, 17, 20, 24, 29, 33, 44, 78–9, 88, 91, 251
free cycle schemes, 201, 219
French Cyclist, The, 60
French national Olympic committee, see ‘CNOSF’
FSGT, 106, 121, 123–5, 127, 138, 243
‘participation for all’, 123
FVDN, 47–8, 69
Gabin, Jean, 109
Gaboriau, Philippe, 32, 39, 120, 150, 251
Gady, Pierre, 155
Gaffney, Chris, 120
Gaillard, Françoise, 41
Galtier-Boissière, Dr, 40
Gamond, Jean, 195
Gané, Laurent, 183
Garcin, Serge, 185
Garin, Maurice, 31–2, 86–7, 91, 147
Garin brothers, 87
Garrigou, Gustave, 110
gate receipts, 58
Gaul, Charly, 147–8, 168
Gauthier brothers, 77
(p.278) Gay-Lescot, Jean-Louis, 136
GBFI, 212
GDR, 182
géantes de la route, les, 213
géants de la route, les, 104–5, 160, 165, 171, 204
gears, 12, 96–9, 156, 158, 169
Geminiani, Raphaël, 148
gender bias, 209
gender relations, 7, 40, 42
gender roles, 203, 210, 213
gender-correctness, 214
Gennevilliers, l'opéra populaire, 123
gentleman-amateur, 32
Gerbod, Paul, 105
Germany, 15, 38, 44, 68, 71, 75–6, 82, 88, 91, 113, 129, 131, 133–5, 147, 153, 181–2, 189, 191, 219, 240
Giant, Taiwanese company, 227
Giffard, Pierre, 52, 55, 59–61, 67, 74, 95, 98, 254
‘Giffardus’, 98
Le Petit Journal, 55
pseudonym ‘Jean-sans-Terre’, 52
Gimondi, Felice, 168
Giro d'Italia, 101, 142
Giscard d'Estaing, President Valéry, 169, 200
Gitane-Campagnolo team, 172, 190, 192
Gladiator cycles, 93
Glasgow world championships 1897, 68
Glénart Editions, 14
Go Sport, distribution, 188, 193
Goddet, Jacques, son of Victor, 131–6, 142, 147, 173–4, 177
Goddet, Victor, 64, 131
Goffmann, Erving, 120
Golden Age of French cycling, 47, 160
Goudard, Maurice, 152
governing bodies, 53, 66, 68, 87, 89, 93, 136, 138–40, 209, 226, 245 see also ‘federations’
Grand Jacques, Le, aka Richard Lesclide, 37
Grand Prix de la République, 73
Grand Prix de Paris du Conseil municipal, 72
grand-bi, le, 14, 33
Grande boucle féminine internationale, see ‘GBFI’
grande boucle, la, 146
grandeur, see also ‘de Gaulle’
grassroots participation, 156
Greece, 240
green jersey, 149
Grenoble, 18, 53, 88, 136, 180, 208, 231, 243
Grévin, Musée, 202
Griffe, Henri, 106
Gros, Céline, 31
Grossman, Robert, 222
Groupe Sport 2000, 227
Guédon, Daniel, 194
guerre franco-française, la, 103
Guétari, Hélène, 158
Hage, Hélène, 211
Hamelle, Paul, 54, 61, 67–70
Hare, Geoff, 2, 5, 129, 158, 184, 216, 246
Hauvette, Stéphane, 196–8
health issues, 19, 25, 35–6, 39, 76, 85, 95, 105, 107, 139, 141, 148, 166, 188, 195–6, 200, 208, 209, 219–20, 233, 241–2, 244–6, 248
lifestyle, 95, 100, 127, 137, 191
Hell of the North, 127
helmets, 125, 156
Helsinki Olympics 1952, 181
heritage, 118, 184, 200, 226–9, 237, 242
heroes, 2, 30, 31–2, 55, 85–6, 104, 114, 130–1, 144–5, 147–50, 152, 157, 162, 164, 166–9, 173, 176, 180, 186, 209, 233–4, 246, 253
anti-heroes, 234
representing the New France, 144
symbolism, 166
Heureux-cyclage network, 232
Hillairet, Dieter, 188
Hinault, Bernard, 163, 172, 186, 191–2, 205, 209, 215–6, 236
cycle company, 192
wind-tunnel, 192
Hirondelle cycles, 79–80, 96
Holbein, Monty, 53
Holland, 181, 211, 240, 245
Holtz, Gérard, 253
Horner, Yvette, 121
Horton, David, 5, 7, 250
Hoy, Sir Chris, 178, 249
Hubscher, Ronald, 16, 19, 20, 22–3, 40–1, 51
Humber cycles, 53, 56, 79
Huret, Constant, 31, 74
hybrids, 155, 156
(p.279) sport (MTB), 198
Hyères, INSEP, 179, 199
ICA, 49, 66–70, 72
Ichah and Boully, sports journalists, 170–1
identity, 2, 7, 10, 13, 22, 34, 38, 42, 85, 118, 120, 149, 157, 166, 197, 204, 219, 227–9, 245, 247, 251, 253
21st century, 218
competition, 197
imagined community, 251
national, 8, 10, 56, 84, 133, 147, 151, 157, 179, 219, 245, 251
nationalism, 29, 63, 73, 82, 91
placeless-ness, 118–9
Tour defining France, 88
ideology, 61–2, 99, 103, 105, 107, 110, 112, 122, 126, 130, 215
IF Design award, 191
IMG-McCormack, 217
impact of cycling, 249
import-export, 187–8, 241
USA, Korea, 198
impresarios, 25, 27, 58, 74, 198, 214
indépendants, riders, 93
Indochina, 147
Indurain, Miguel, 233
industrialization, 10–11, 69, 75, 78, 103, 108, 159, 230
industry, 1, 6–9, 12–13, 24, 29, 32–3, 38, 44–6, 50–51, 58, 61–5, 66–7, 74–81, 83, 85, 92–3, 99–102, 110, 113, 117, 121, 124, 133, 136, 142, 152, 160–62, 184, 186–8, 190–4, 198, 200, 215–18, 222–3, 234, 239–41, 247, 249, 250
decline and rise, 13, 78–9, 100, 133, 186–8, 191–2, 198, 222, 241, 250
in late 20th century, 186–94 see also ‘manufacturing’
MFAC, 79
overview, 11, 249
SMEs, 190, 193
innovation, 6, 8, 34, 42, 57, 76, 78, 80–83, 85, 87, 101, 106, 139, 149, 154, 156, 160, 163, 171–2, 175, 189, 190–92, 199–200, 209–11, 216, 223, 233, 246, 249, 250
and resistance, 154
sports journalism, 87
INPI Trophy, 190
INSEP, 182–3
elite athetes, 179
sports science, 182
Institut national du sport et de l'éducation physique, see ‘INSEP’
institutionalization, 16, 43, 199
Interior Ministry, 19, 50, 228
international competitions, 65, 67, 72, 179, 182, 194, 254
International Cycling Association, see ‘ITA’
international cycling bodies, 47, 51, 66
International Triathlon Union, see ‘ITA’
internationalism, 11, 43, 45–7, 51, 53, 65–73, 103, 143, 162, 179–84, 186, 194, 199, 206, 209–10, 216, 220, 226–8, 231, 235, 242, 251, 254
internationalization, 43, 65, 110, 209
creation of the UCI, 65
USFSA and amateurism, 71–2
Intersport, distribution, 188
Invalides, les, 118
Iriart d'Etchepare, Louis d', 50
Irish Cyclists' Union, 70
ITU, 199
Jacquelin, Edmond, 31, 70, 74
Japan, 187, 190, 240
Jarry, Alfred, 6
Jean-sans-Terre, see ‘Giffard’
Jegher, Emile, 60
Jiel-Laval, Pierre-Joseph, 28, 53–6, 74, 82
Joan of Arc, 172
Jour de Fête, film, 150–52, 156–7, 248, 251–2
Jour se lève, Le, film, 109
Journal de Caen, Le, 125
journalism, 52, 59–62, 68, 85, 89, 95, 101, 132, 166, 173–4, 176–7
left-wing, 177
literary influence, 174
journalists, 60, 74, 84, 89, 111, 132, 134–5, 146, 170–1, 174, 177, 214
Journée nationale de la bicyclette, la, 124, 125
(p.280) Juzan, Georges, 43
Keen, John, 43
Keller, Fabienne, 222
King of the Mountains, 163
King, Billie Jean, 217
Koblet, Hugo, 146, 148
Korea, 194
Kubler, Ferdi, 146
La Grande Motte (Hérault), 199
La Plagne, 196, 217
La Rochelle, 200–1, 219, 250
La Varenne, race track, 29
Labor team, 111
Laborde, Christian, 7, 218
Ladevèze, Fernand, 59
Laget, Serge, 133, 175
Lagrange company (Autun), 77
Lagrange, Léo, 105, 107
Lagrue, Pierre, 5, 131–3, 135, 157
Lallement, Pierre, 14
Lambert, Gaston, 128
Lancien, Nathalie, 183
Langevin–Wallon plan, 141
Lanneluc-Sanson, Maurice, 59
lanterne rouge, la, 86, 211
Lapébie, Roger, 108, 113
Lapierre cycles, 216
Lapize, Octave, 110
Larzac plateau, 217, 230
late modernity, 184
LAURE, 220, 222
Laval, Pierre, 134
Le Brethon, Brigitte, report, 220
Le Corbusier (Charles-Edouard Jeanneret), 119
Le Mans, 13, 134
Le Raincy, race track, 29
Le Roux, Hervé, 175
Le Touzet, Jean-Louis, 238
League of American Wheelmen, 46, 68, 72
League of New Zealand Wheelmen, 71
Lebas, Jean, 125
Leblanc, Maurice, 42
Lecarme, Jacques, 144
Leducq, André, 113
Lefèvre, Géo (Georges), 84–5, 101
Lefèvre, Georges, 84
leisure, 1, 5–8, 10–13, 15–16, 21, 25–8, 32, 34, 37, 39, 40–2, 46, 48, 56, 73, 77, 90, 93, 99, 100, 102–3, 105–9, 118, 126, 130–1, 136–8, 140–41, 150, 152, 154–5, 157–8, 176–9, 183, 187–9, 191–2, 195–8, 200, 206, 215, 218–22, 226, 229, 232, 240–44, 247–8, 255
and public policy, 103, 107
civilisation de loisirs, la, 109, 247
leisure activity, 1, 34, 40, 241
pas la paresse, 107
leisure cycling, 4, 7, 8, 13, 25–6, 32, 39, 40, 48, 95, 100, 103–4, 141, 154, 159, 162–3, 186–7, 197, 200, 205, 209, 215, 218–9, 240–2, 247
and the environment, 248
consumption, 190
from USA, 186
resistance to cars, 248
slow leisure, 13
survey, 241
urban, 248
vs. competitive cycling, 154
Lens, 121
Léonard, Yves, 5, 132–3, 136, 157
Léon-Petit, Dr, 35
Les Lilas, 155
Lesclide, Richard, 29, 37, 43, 59
Lescot, Jean-Louis, 129
Leulliot, Jean, 134
Lévitan, Félix, 210
Liberation, 11, 129, 131, 135–7, 139, 142
Libération, newspaper, 177, 208, 238, 253
licenciés, 139, 199
life after competition, 202, 206, 208
lifestyle, 96, 153, 237
Ligue Vélocipédique Belge, 71
Lille, 29, 88, 188–9, 243
Limoges and region, 134, 170
literature and sport, 173, 185
Liverpool–London race, 53
Loi sur l'air et l'utilisation rationnelle de l'énergie, la, see ‘LAURE’
Loi sur la solidarité et le renouvellement urbain, la, see ‘SRU’
Loire à vélo, cycle route, 233
Loire area, 217, 233, 242
Londeix, Georges, 178–9, 183
London, 49, 53, 56, 101, 181, 228, 249
Olympics 1948, 181
London Evening News and Post, 56
London Stanley Cycling Club, 53
(p.281) Londres, Albert, 13, 111, 122, 173
Longchamp track, 33
longevity, 193, 202, 252
and memory, 252
Longo, Jeannie, 6, 186–7, 201–9, 211, 215, 217, 251
and (male) federations, 204
campionnissima, 215
la rebelle, 206
sponsors of, 203
Look, cycling company, 9, 188–94, 215–17, 239, 241, 246, 250
high-tech components, 190
Look race, la, 246
Los Angeles Olympics 1984, 210
Loste, Henri, 22
Loste, Louis, 43
Louveau, Catherine, 203
Lucenski, A. de, 60
Lundi de Michelin, les, 83
Luxembourg, 147
Lyon, 10, 18, 29, 53, 86, 134, 181, 188, 19–4, 201, 215, 219, 220–4, 226, 231, 243–4, 250
Mach 2, VTT, 198
Mademoiselle Julie, 37–8
Maes, Romain, 113, 184
Magne, Antonin, 111, 113, 144
Magné, Frédéric, 183
Magraw, Roger, 15
Maguire, Joseph, 118
Maigne, Jacques, 185
maillot jaune, le, see ‘yellow jersey’
Maisons-Laffitte track, 29
Manifeste de l'UCF, 49
Manufacture française des armes et cycles, la, see ‘MFAC’
Manufrance, see ‘MFAC’
Marchand, Jacques, 63, 177
maréchalisme, le, 132
Mariani, Thierry, 221
Marie, Pierre, 124
Marinoni, Hippolyte, 61
Marks, John, 235
Marseille, 29
marshalling, 93
Martin, Mary-Ann, 211
Martin, Maurice, 26, 52, 60–61, 69–70, 80
mass culture, 75
mass market, 33
commuting/leisure, 187
mass participation, 100, 117, 215, 228
mass spectator sport, 115
mass-start road race, 53, 248
matinées du Cycliste, les, 96
Mauresmo, Amélie, 37, 217
Mavic, company, 239, 241
May 1968, 100, 159, 167, 197, 200, 230
MBK Tracker MTB, 198
meanings and uses, 244, 247–55
carnival, 120
conceptualization of cycling, 247
cycling's complexity, 4–5, 7, 10–11, 21, 174, 213, 247, 250, 255
ethics and values, 4, 11, 16, 40, 42, 47, 48, 51, 60, 86, 93, 95, 99, 112, 130, 133–4, 138, 140–41, 151, 165, 172, 175, 207, 208, 215, 218
freedom, 7, 35, 41–42, 108–9, 153–4, 196, 200, 219, 247
identities, 251
ideologies of class, 103
lived experience, 157
man as machine, 112
neo-Darwinism, 99
riders' own set of values, 171
sporting values, 27, 86, 165
suffering, 112
technology, 249
media, 4, 6–8, 11, 13, 16, 30–31, 33, 45, 51, 59–67, 73, 76–78, 84–5, 87–8, 93, 99, 101–102, 108–11, 114, 116–17, 126–7, 135–6, 146, 148, 160, 169, 170, 173, 175–7, 184, 188–9, 193, 197, 203–4, 206, 208–11, 214, 218, 224, 238, 249, 253
and sport, 52, 100
and stars, 114
coverage, 16, 31, 33, 51, 59, 111, 160, 173, 177, 209, 249
in transition, 173
interests, 66
machismo, 214
mediatization, 115, 126, 160, 166, 184, 218
(p.282) sport, 116, 154
Médinger, Paul, 31
mega-events, 75, 180
Melbourne Olympics 1956, 181
Melun, 33
Mémoire du cyclisme organisation, 181
memory, 3, 34, 100, 118–19, 227
lieux de mémoire, 118
popular-historical, 252
Menesson, Marcel, 152
Merckx, Eddy, 163, 169, 172, 205, 209, 233
Metheny, Eleanor, 203
Metz, 88
Meute, La, organization, 205, 217
Mexico, 180, 182, 202, 206
Mexico City, 180, 206
Olympics 1968, 182
Meyer company (Paris), 77
MFAC, 76, 79–81, 187, 239
demise, 187
mail-order, 80
small-scale-retailing decline, 188
Michaux, Pierre, 14
company, 18
family, 12, 79
Michéa, Abel, 177
Michelin, 34, 56, 64, 76–7, 79–83, 249
Association sportive Michelin, 91
Bibendum, 81
founding myth, 81
Michelin brothers, 33, 81–3
Michelin races, 83
Mieux se déplacer à bicyclette, 201
Milan, 181
militant cycling, 200, 229, 231, 250
La Rochelle, 201
military cycling, 20–21, 73, 88, 91–2, 120, 181, 217
Millocheau, Arsène, 86
Mills, G.P. (George Pilkington), 28, 53, 55, 101
Mimard, Etienne, 80
Minart, Louis, 60
Ministère de l'écologie et du développement durable, 233
Ministry of Education, 104
Ministry of Sports, 107, 197–9, 208, 217, 228, 235
Ministry of Tourism, 194–5, 198
Miquel, Pierre, 108
Miroir des Sports, Le, 167, 184
Miroir du cyclisme, Le, 173, 175–8, 249
alternative voice, 176
demise, 177
Miroirs du Tour, Les, film, 157
Miroir-Sprint, 144, 148, 176
Miss America, 38
Mission nationale VVV, 232
Mitterrand, President François, 186, 208
mobylette, la, 151, 153
modernity, 8–10, 15, 25, 27, 29, 32, 34, 77, 85, 88, 90, 119–20, 131, 146, 149–50, 154, 157, 171, 251, 254
cycling, 251
modernization, 9–11, 15–16, 42, 44, 75–6, 141, 143, 145, 149–51, 154, 157, 159–60, 165, 169, 171, 173–75, 184, 194, 234, 248–9
forced, 191
sport the driver of, 44
Monaco–Paris race, 145
Monde sportif, Le, 65, 84, 101
Monde, Le, 65, 84, 101, 238, 253
Mondovélo company, 227
‘Monsieur Chrono’, 168
‘Monsieur Millimètre’, 168
‘Monsieur Vélo’, 219–21, 245
government planning, 220
Mont Ventoux, 149, 168, 217
montée du Col des Grands Bois, la, 100
Montmartre, 225
Montpellier, 32, 59, 230–31
Montreal, 68, 182
Olympics 1976, 182
world championships 1899, 68
Moore, James, 29, 31, 33
Moreau, Francis, 183
Morelon, Daniel, 160, 178–84, 249, 251
coaching success, 183
Moscow Olympics 1980, 182
Moto-Club de France, 64
moto-cross, 155–6
motor industry, 81, 229
motor sport, 83–5
motorcycling, 24, 28, 83, 156, see also mobylette, ‘moped’, ‘Vélo-Solex’
Moulin-Bourret, Annie, 81–2
Mouna, Aguigui, aka André Dupont, 230, 246
mountain-biking, see ‘MTBs’
(p.283) Mouvement de défense de la bicyclette, 200
MTBs, 7–8, 13, 154–6, 186–7, 191–2, 195–8, 202, 216–17, 239–41, 243
anti-establishment, 198
revolution, 154 see also VTT
Munich Olympics 1972, 182
Mureaux triathlon (Yvelines), 199
Nancini, Gastone, 168
Nancy, 88, 231
Nantes, 86, 101, 233
national championships, 30, 33, 158
National Cyclists' Association, 71
National Cyclists' Union, see ‘NCU’
national teams, see ‘teams’
nature sports, 197
Naudin, Pierre, 43
Nazi Germany, 107, 131
NCU, 46, 47, 53, 67
neo-liberal economic theories, 99
Netherlands, see ‘Holland’
Nevers, 190, 216
new cycling, 192, 194
New France and cycling, 129, 143–9
new kinds of cycling, 195, 226
New York marathon, 228
New Zealand Cycling Union, 70
Nice–Côte d'Azur race, 199
Nicoloso, Isabelle, 183
Nivea, Tour sponsor, 142, 149
Normandy, 42, 64, 136, 170
nostalgia, 144, 151–2, 175, 248
Nye, Edward, 6
Observatoire du cycle, 240
obsolescence, 149–50, 251
Occupation, 4, 11, 63, 129–35, 139–40, 142, 144–5, 160
Odense Grand Prix, 181
Olivier brothers, Aimé, René, and Marius, 29
Ollivier, Jean-Paul, 13, 184
Olympics, 107, 119, 178–84, 202, 206, 211, 217, 249, 251
CNOSF, 199
failure in Rome, 185
medals, 160
Omnium club, 17, 51, 63
ordinary bicycle, see also grand bi, 14
Ory, Pascal, 107, 122–3
Oséo organization, 216
Otéro, la Belle (Caroline), 38
ouvriers de la pédale, les, 121–2, 127
pacing, 53, 54, 85–6, 101, 218
derny-style, 151
pacemakers, 85
Palais des Arts libéraux, 57
Palais Omnisports de Bercy, 118
panniers, 152
Pantin, race track, 29
Parc de Saint-Cloud, 29, 34
Parc des Princes velodrome, 57, 64, 101, 116, 118, 136, 168
Paris hippodrome, 29
Paris–Brest–Paris race, 8, 30, 52, 54–6, 61–2, 64–5, 74, 85, 93, 106, 127, 212, 249, 255
Paris–Brest–Paris randonneur, 106, 127
Paris–Caen race, 125
Paris–Dakar rally, 231
Parisien libéré, Le, 136, 210
Le Parisien, 136, 207, 210
Paris–Madrid motor race, 84
Paris–Monaco race, 135
Paris–Pontoise race, 31
Paris–Roubaix race, 8, 52, 64–5, 93, 103, 108, 121–7, 142, 229, 236, 249
Paris–Roubaix travailliste race, 108, 121–6, 249
Paris–Rouen race, 29–31, 33, 38, 43, 52, 101
Paris–Soir, 133
Pascot, Colonel Joseph, 137–8
Pas-de-Calais region, 189
Pasteur, Louis, 38
Paté, Henry, 104
patriotism, 63, 88, 133
Pau, 18, 43
Parc Beaumont velodrome, 57
Tour stage, 146
Véloce-club béarnais, 18, 41
Pawlowski, Gaston de, 65
Paxton, Robert O., 137
Pédaler mieux, vivre utile, 246
pedals, 39, 98, 154, 169, 192, 216–7
(p.284) Peigné, Hubert, 221
Pélissier brothers, Henri, Francis, Charles, 112, 122
Pélissier, Henri, 111, 113, 122
peloton (pack), 127, 145, 151, 167, 170–1, 209, 227, 234–7
two-speed peloton, 235
Pendleton, Victoria, 249
penny-farthing, 14, 33, 79
Perec, Marie-José, 208
Perez, Mauric, 128
performance-enhancing, see ‘doping’
Perret, Jacques, 173
personal transport, 28, 62, 83, 130, 152, 154, 218–9, 225, 229, 247
Pétain, Marshal Philippe, 131–2, 139
petit Jaune, le, aka L'Auto-Vélo, 65
Petit Journal, Le, 52, 55–6, 60–2, 64, 74, 82, 249, 255
Petit Parisien, Le, 111, 122, 128
petit Tour de France, Le, 135–6
petit Vert, le, aka Le Vélo, 61, 65
petite Reine, la, 90–91, 130, 141
Peugeot, 77, 110–11, 172, 188, 196, 198, 217, 239
Grand Prix, 93
MTBs, 198
Peugeot-frères, 77
sponsor, 172
Peuple de Bruxelles, Le, 125
Peyresourde, col de, 89
Piaf, Edith, 121
Pigois, Rémy, 210
Plan de rénovation du sport français, 180
Plan modes doux, 223
Plan national vélo, 221
Plan vélo, 222
Planetfun company, 241
Plogoff nuclear plant, 217, 230
Pociello, Christian, 170, 172
points jersey, 147
Poitiers, Circuit de France, 134
Poland, 126
policies, see ‘public policy’
Poly de Chanteloup race, 217
Polymultipliée touring event, 105
Populaire, Le, 108, 121–2, 124–28, 249
popular culture, 103, 115–6, 118, 126, 131, 137, 147, 149, 151, 155
Popular Front, 8, 90, 102–3, 105–9, 117, 122–3, 125–7, 130, 136–7, 144, 159, 247
sports policy, 106
Portugal, 240
postman (Tati), 150–1, 156
Pothier, Louis, 31, 87
Poulidor, Raymond, 142, 160, 162, 166, 168–72, 237, 253
and peloton, 171
duel with Anquetil, 170
éternel second, l', 166, 169
fair play, 169, 171–2
Raymond Poulidor, la, ride, 229
Poyer, Alex, 17, 21, 41, 45, 71, 74, 92
pratique du vélo, la, 195
press, 13, 25, 27–29, 32, 43, 45–6, 49, 52, 54, 56, 58–60, 62, 65, 67, 74, 84, 89, 92–3, 95, 112, 114, 116, 121, 125, 128, 135, 142, 174, 176, 212, 218, 237–8
and industry, 74
and racing, 110
reporting, 54, 61–5, 73, 84–5, 87, 89, 96, 111, 149, 173, 175, 177, 206, 249
sporting press, 8, 33, 54, 59, 61, 65–6, 76, 81, 102, 178, 205
symbiosis with industry, 111
symbiosis with sport, 59, 171, 176
‘Prix Femino’, 205
Prix Observeur du Design, 189
Prix Orange, 208
prizes, 31–32, 54, 55, 71, 86, 89, 93, 114, 121, 125–6, 138, 148, 166, 178, 190, 198, 205, 213, 236
cash, 32, 74, 93, 125, 213, 236
cups, 55, 125
production, see ‘manufacturing’
professional cycling, 2–3, 8, 16, 26, 28, 31–2, 34–5, 46, 49–52, 54, 56–7, 66–8, 73–4, 76–7, 92, 98, 100–4, 106, 116–7, 121–2, 127–8, 130, 138, 140, 142, 145, 160–5, 168, 172, 177, 184, 191, 194, 202, 207, 209, 212, 215, 217–8, 228, 234, 237, 241, 251–2
ethics of professionalism, 138
riders, 2, 22, 31–2, 47, 49, 53, 67, 74, 93, 110, 114, 121, 138, 146, 164–5, 207, 215, 227, 233, 235
progress, 25, 34, 47, 85–6, 127, 144, 152, 164, 221, 251–2, 255
as pleasurable slowness, 255
Promiles, 241
Pro-Tour, UCI competition, 234
(p.285) Proust, Marcel, 41
public policy, 11, 80, 103–4, 107–8, 127, 130, 137, 139, 141, 157, 177, 180, 183, 187, 190, 208, 226, 242
public space, 30, 34, 57, 200, 224
pursuit racing, 24, 46, 182–3, 206, 238
Pyrenees, 89, 236, 242
Quantum International, 241
Quintyn, Gérard, 183, 184
Quiquéré, Henri, 177
racing meetings, 22–3, 26, 29
race organizers, 66, 89, 146, 162, 164, 168, 227
racing bike, 55–6, 109, 126, 187, 191–2, 194, 243
Radenac (Morbihan), 145
Radicaux de Gauche party, 201
radio, 107, 111, 113, 126, 160, 164, 175
Raffarin, Jean-Pierre, 220
rainbow jersey, 147
Rally-cycle rennais, 91
randonneuse (touring bike), 216
Ranger, VTT bike, 198
RATP (Paris Metro), 220
RCO, 212–3
Rebillard, Daniel, 182
Rebry, Gaston, 121
records, 18, 38, 43, 53, 116, 144, 148, 154, 202, 206, 217, 238
world hour, 168, 202, 206
recreation, see ‘leisure’
Reed, Eric, 110
regulation, 4, 17, 19, 27, 30, 47, 48, 60, 65, 68, 70–2, 86–7, 89, 109, 111, 113, 122, 160, 162, 169, 175, 242
Reichel, Frantz, 65, 72, 84
Renault company and team, 83, 172, 192, 209, 215
Renault-Elf Gitane team, 172
Renault-Gitane team, 192
Rennes, 88, 221, 224, 231
reporting, see ‘press’
republican ideal, 21, 28, 42, 75
republican sporting values, 47
Revanche, la, 38, 88, 91
Revue des sports, La, 61
Revue du sport vélocipédique, La, 62
Revue du Touring Club de France, La, 97
Reynolds tubes, 194
Riefenstahl, Leni, 127
Riguelle, Alfred, 71
Rioux, Jean-Pierre, 139
Ritchie, Andrew, 12, 14, 46–7, 65–6
road racing, 13, 25, 30–1, 34, 38, 52–3, 55, 57, 58, 85, 92, 95, 116, 122, 152, 156, 183, 191, 195, 202, 206, 210, 229, 232, 242–4, 249
dominating track, 180
Robic, Jean, 131, 143–6, 148–9, 157–8, 160, 166, 168, 251, 253
the Astérix complex, 144
Rochet company, 77
rollerblading, 186, 216, 229, 232
Rome Olympics 1960, 180
Ronde Châtelleraudaise, la, ride, 229
Ronde de France, la, race, 136, 142
Rosen, Paul, 7, 229
Ross, Kristin, 150
Rousseau, Florian, 178, 183
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 99
Rousseau, Paul, 50, 52, 60–1, 65, 71–2, 74, 84
Rousset, Pierre, 59
Rousso, Henry, 129
Route de France féminine, 212–13
Route et Cycles, magazine, 212
RPR, Chirac's party, 208
Ruffier, Dr, 90
safety bicycle, 12, 45
Sagan, Prince de, 90
Saint Etienne–Clermont race, 217
Saint-Brévin-les-Pins (Loire-Atlantique), 233
Saint-Cloud race 1868, 31
Saint-Denis, 118, 125, 126
Sainte-Sévère-sur-Indre (Jour de fête), 150
Saint-Etienne, 8, 18, 76–7, 79–80, 87, 94–7, 100, 134, 187, 231, 249
Ecole stéphanoise, l', 94, 96–8, 100
Saint-Mandé, 155
Salomon company, 241
Salon du Cycle 1897, 80
Sarkozy, President Nicolas, 253
Schéma national des véloroutes et voies vertes, see ‘SN3V’
Schumway, Deborah, 211
Scottish Cyclists' Union, 70
Second Empire, 15, 40
(p.286) Second World War, 63, 73
Seidler, Edouard, 59
Seoul Olympics 1988, 183
Seray, Jacques, 86, 132, 176
Shimano, Japanese company, 190, 192
Simpson Lever Chain team, 38
Simpson, Tom, 168, 184
six-day racing, 8, 104, 114–6, 121, 140, 142
Reine des Six Jours, 120–1
Vél' d'hiv', 114–6
skateboarding, 186, 216, 229
SMEs, 193, 216
SN3V, 233
SNCF (French rail), 220, 225
sociability, 7, 10–11, 16, 19, 22, 39–42, 115, 151, 157, 228, 247
and democracy, 19
and sport, 17
social change and bicycle use, 9
social class, 4, 8, 10, 15–17, 22–8, 30, 32, 34, 38–9, 42, 57, 62, 75, 91, 93, 100, 104, 109, 117, 126, 141, 144, 191, 206, 235, 244, 248, 251
composition, 90
la distinction, 23–24, 27, 57, 90, 191
prejudice, 123
sports pastimes, 196
socialism, 103, 121–3, 135, 175, 177, 186–7, 222, 224–5
socialist sport, 108, 121–6, 249
Société des vélocipèdes du Tarn, 17
Société du Parc des Princes, 136
Société du Tour de France, 177, 209–13, 238
Société pratique du vélocipède, 17
sociétés de gymnastique, 91, 104
Soviet Union, 182
Spain, 66, 113, 162, 189, 240
spectacle, 2, 6, 8, 23, 25, 31, 34, 37–8, 42, 52, 54, 57–58, 74, 76, 88, 99, 103, 104, 107–8, 110, 112, 114–17, 119–24, 126–7, 136–7, 140, 142, 161, 177, 236, 238, 255
opposition, 177
spectacle de masse, un, 31
spectators, 31, 38, 53, 56–8, 85–7, 105, 108, 111, 114, 116, 119–20, 123, 126, 128, 137, 145, 155, 167–8, 204, 211, 242
Vél' d'hiv', 117
speed, 10, 13, 25, 28, 34, 43, 53, 58, 77, 85–6, 90, 94, 98, 105–6, 121, 127, 151, 153, 156–7, 211, 214, 243, 250–2, 255
as progress, 252
over time, 250
Speicher, 113
sponsorship, 64, 111, 113–4, 142, 161–5, 209, 217, 228, 238
teams, 162
sport, 4–5, 7–10, 248–9, 254–5
and grandeur, 180
and ideology, 102, 111
and television, 164
as a right, 137
as business, 77
as healthy living, 117, 130
as personal pleasure, 104
as service public, 139, 142
early days, 26
for elite, 24, 27, 34, 156
imported, 196
mass sport vs. elite sport, 179
regulation, 17, 19, 51, 65–66, 210
sports de haut niveau, 180
stars, see ‘stardom’
team or individuals?, 110
vs. touring, 92, 196
Sport, Le, 59, 125
Sportive, La consortium, 111
sportivisation of society, 159
sport-loisir, le, 140, 217
sports de glisse, les, 197
sports mécaniques, les, 28
sports medicine, 182
Sports, Les, 65, 101
sports-leisure cycling, 226, 243
sports–media–industrial complex, 45, 52, 63, 78, 93, 157, 249
Sportus, 217
Sport-Vu, 217
sprint jersey, 163
SRU, 220, 222
Stade Amédée-Prouvost, Roubaix, 125
Stade de France, 118
stadiums, 115
‘landscape of anaesthesia’, 120
‘landscape of spectacle’, 119
as prisons, 119
as space, 117–18
the stadium experience, 120
topophilia, 118
stardom, 2, 6, 39, 43, 50, 58, 68, 77, 89, 104–5, 114, 127, 162–4, 166, (p.287) 170, 172–3, 176, 184, 202, 209, 217, 234, 249, 252
state intervention, 137, 179, 200, 220, 245, 255
Steenberg, Jacques, 153, 154
STO, 134
Strasbourg, 10, 201, 219–223, 227, 232, 250
Sturmey, Henry, 68, 69, 70
suburbs, 8, 109, 118, 224
Suntour, 192
Suriray, Etablissements, 33
surveys of cycling, 58, 101, 140, 198, 219
suspension and forks, 155–56
sustainability, 100, 192, 219, 223–4, 229, 233, 241, 255
Sweden, 240
Swiners, Jean-Louis, 155
Switzerland, 70–71, 146, 148, 240
Taiwan, 186–7, 194, 227
tandem, 8, 36, 101, 109, 127, 181–83, 193, 194, 247
Morelon–Quintyn, 183
symbol of 1936, 109, 247
Tapie, Bernard, 172, 192
Tati, Jacques, 150–52, 251
Taylorism, 78, 83, 101, 112
TCF, 26, 40, 47–48, 51, 76, 93, 98, 106, 138, 139
Team France Organisation, see ‘TFO’
Team Sky, 249
teams, 27, 89, 100, 105, 110–1, 127, 157, 164–5, 172, 178, 180, 189, 192, 208–9, 211–2, 215, 221–2, 227, 236, 238, 249, 263
commercial, 113–4, 142, 160–1, 162, 164, 170, 213
manufacturers', 142
regional, 148, 162
team leaders, 144, 146, 163, 165
team orders, 110–11
technocracy, 11, 159, 166–7, 171, 237, 246
technology, 6–7, 9, 11–12, 16, 24, 28, 32–5, 39, 56, 65, 75–8, 80, 83–4, 95–100, 143, 150–1, 155–6, 159, 171, 190–3, 215–6, 229, 247, 249–51, 255
high-tech, 9, 187–92, 194, 215–6, 239, 241, 250
innovation, 9, 28, 191, 216
modernity, 24, 83, 100
technology of movement, 251
television, 149, 153, 160–4, 169, 172–6, 180, 185, 199, 209
consultants, 169
impact on competitions, 175
live outside broadcast, 149, 175, 249
Terret, Thierry, 180, 214
Terront, Charles, 25, 30–2, 53–6, 82, 85, 101, 249
tête et les jambes, la, see ‘Desgrange’
TFO, 212–3
Thévenet, Bernard, 160, 166, 172–3
la Bernard Thévenet ride, 229
self-effacing, 172
social origins, 172
Thibault, Jacques, 21
Thiers, Adolphe, 44
Third Republic, 11, 15, 19, 28, 39–40, 43–4, 116, 131, 137, 145
Thomann team, 111
Thompson, Christopher, 5, 42, 112, 122, 133, 136, 205, 210, 214
Thys, Philippe, 101, 110, 167
time and speed, 85
time trials, 32, 53, 111–12, 143, 168, 170–71, 178, 181, 183, 206, 217, 236, 248
British model, 53
teams, 111
Time, cycling company, 9, 151, 188–91, 193, 215–16, 239, 241, 246, 250
la Time-Mégève Mont-Blanc race, 246
Time Sport International, 190
Tinfranet company (Tours), 77
Tissié, Dr Philippe, 36–41
Tokyo Olympics 1964, 181
topophilia, see ‘stadiums’ Toulouse, 18, 29, 31, 86, 212, 231
Racing Club olympique, 212
Toulouse–Villefranche–Toulouse race, 29
Tour de France, 1–3, 5–6, 8, 11, 13, 31, 38, 45, 58, 61, 63, 65, 73, 76, 83–90, 96, 98–101, 103, 111–13, 116, 121–2, 130–6, 139, 142–50, 157–8, 160–5, 173–5, 202, 204–5, 213–9, 226–8, 233–8, 247, 249, 252, 254–5
(p.288) and L'Auto, 130
and legend, 87
and manufacturers, 110, 142
and national identity, 88, 130, 254
and the Left, 122
as advertising vehicle, 110
body as machine, 112
caravane, la, 110, 113–4, 116, 126, 128, 142, 211
early tours, 84
fans, 116
foreign riders, 246
host-towns, 213
innovation, 149
internationalization, 235
invention, 43, 51, 215
le tour de souffrance, 112
mass participation, 226
modesty not grandeur, 252
mountain stages, 6, 89–90, 112, 134, 149, 168, 184, 207, 217, 227
no wartime Tours, 130
origins, 25, 52, 76, 84
points bonuses, 111
press, 85, 113
sprint competition, 147
stages abroad, 149
Tour of Shame, the, 218, 234, 252
villes-étape, 142, 164, 227
Tour de France féminin, 202, 204, 209–10, 212
Tour de la CEE féminin, 212
Tour de Paris, 29
Tour of the European Community, 212
touring, 8, 10, 13, 16, 25–27, 39, 47–9, 60, 76, 90, 92–98, 100, 105–6, 138–9, 178, 187, 193–7, 216, 232–3, 242, 248
hypertourisme, 94
interwar, 105–6
lifestyles, 96–8
long-distance, 10, 93–8, 105
maps and guides, 48, 96
routes, 8, 220
Touring Club de France, see ‘TCF’
tourism, 7, 93, 100, 106, 195, 197, 219–20, 226–7, 233, 239, 241–2, 245, 255
touristes-routiers, les, 106, 127
Tourmalet, col du, 89
Tournant, Arnaud, 178, 183
Tours, city, 77, 123
track racing, 8, 13, 22, 25, 30, 35, 38, 49, 52, 57–8, 85, 92, 95, 101, 103, 114–7, 119–20, 125, 160, 178–4, 202, 249
track teams, 179, 249
training, see ‘coaching’
Trautmann, Catherine, 222
Trente glorieuses, les, 175, 186, 248
Trentin, Pierre, 181–2
triathlon, 198
difficulty federating, 199
Tribout, 33
triplette, 127
Trophée de France, 93
Trousselier, Louis, 147
tyres, 12, 33, 36, 56, 61, 81–3, 121, 249
UACP, 105–6, 127
Union cycliste de France, 49
Union cycliste internationale, l', see ‘UCI’
Union cycliste suisse, 71
Union des Audax cyclistes parisiens, l', see ‘UACP’
Union des Audax françaises, 127
Union des cyclistes professionnels français, 143
Union des sociétés de gymnastique de France, 46
Union des sociétés françaises de sports athlétiques, see ‘USFSA’
Union des sociétés sportives et gymniques du travail, 123
Union sacrée, l', 103
Union Vélocipédique de France, see ‘UVF’
Union vélocipédique parisienne, 30
Unione velocipedistica italiana, 71
urban cycling, see ‘utility cycling’
urbanization, 75, 78, 103, 230
US Postal team, 236
USA, 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 34, 43, 45, 49, 67–72, 83, 115, 150–1, 154, 180, 186–7, 191, 193, 194, 196, 211, 216–8, 229–30, 233, 234–8, 240, 242, 246, 252
American model, 150
France's love–hate relationship, 235 see also ‘Americanization’
(p.289) USADA, 238, 255
USFSA, 45, 48–9, 51, 67, 71–4
USSR, 182
utility cycling, 4, 7, 9, 13, 29, 36–37, 39, 42, 73, 76, 85, 130, 141, 150, 153–4, 176, 188, 225, 240, 242–4, 247–8, 250–52, 255
class, 243
commuting, 221, 243–4
factors, 221, 244
le Code de la rue, 243
patterns, 243
urban, 10, 155, 224, 229
Vaillant-Miroir Sprint, publisher, 176
van Looy, Rik, 142, 162
Vant, André, 79
VCCP, 154–7
Veblen, Thorstein, 27
vegetarianism, 95, 207
Vélo à la carte, Rennes, 224
vélo détente-découverte, le, 195
vélo passion, le, 195
vélo pépère, le, 195
vélo promenade, le, 195
vélo solitude, le, 195
Vélo, Le, 6, 22, 29, 32–3, 43, 49, 52–70, 72, 74, 84, 95, 101, 176, 249, 255
Véloce-club béarnais, 43, 91
Véloce-club bordelais, see ‘VCB’
Véloce-club de Paris, 29
Véloce-club de Toulouse, 31
Véloce-club de Valence, 17
Véloce-club rouennais, 17
Véloceman, Le, 32, 59, 60
Véloce-Sport, Le, 21–22, 52, 54–5, 59–61, 67
Vélocio, see ‘Vivie’
Vélocipède illustré, Le, 29, 59, 62
vélocipédie, la, 12–14, 21, 33, 35–8, 43, 53, 55, 77–9, 81, 84, 90–2, 98, 101, 244, 255
vélocipédie militaire, la, 9, 21, 43, 63, 76, 82, 91–2, 104, 129, 132, 181
vélocipédie utilitaire, la, 13
Vélo-cité, Montpellier, 231
vélo-cross, le, 154–55, 248
Vélo-cross club de Paris, see ‘VCCP’
Vélo-cross club parisien, 196
Vélodrome d'hiver, le, 8, 57, 73, 103, 115–7, 120, 126, 141
commodification of sport, 116
internment of Jews, 115, 119
six-day racing, 114
spectators, 117
sport as spectacle, 120
stadium space, 117
Vélodrome de Buffalo, le, 57–8, 125
Vélodrome de la Galerie des Machines, le, 115
Vélodrome de la Seine, le, 57, 74
velodromes, 30–1, 37–8, 49–50, 52, 56–8, 64, 71, 73, 101, 105, 114–9, 125–6, 136, 142
owners, 58, 64, 173
racing, 56–7, 73, 114
Vélo-Féminin, 213
Vélo-Magazine, 226
vélomanie, la, 17
vélomoteurs, 10, 141, 153, 156
véloroutes et voies vertes, see ‘VVV’
Vélorution, 219, 225, 229–32, 244, 246
‘critical mass’, 229
activities, ‘chapels’, 231
antithesis of Tour, 232
Manifeste Vélorutionnaire, 230
vélos jaunes, les, 201
vélo tout-terrain, le, see ‘VTT’
Vélo-Solex, 10, 130–1, 152–4, 156–7, 161, 248
users, 153
Vélotaf discussion site, 246
Verband der Deutscher Rad Rennbahnen, 71
Vercingétorix, 172
Verdun, 131
Vernet, Philippe, 183
Verts (Green) party, 223
Vichy regime, 11, 107, 129–141, 145, 149, 157, 159
cycling and sport, 136–7
institutions, 137
Vichy syndrome, 129
Vidal, Maurice, 177–8
Vie au grand air, La, 62, 86
Vie Claire team, La, 192, 209, 215
Vie ouvrière, La, 177
vieille Bique, la, aka UVF, 74
Vienna world championships 1898, 68
Vienne, Théodore, 128
Vietto, René, 143–6, 148, 217
Vigarello, Georges, 2, 3, 89, 245
(p.290) ville cyclable, une, 200
ville lumière, la, Paris, 75
Villeneuve-d'Ascq, 189
Villers, comte de, 71
Villeurbanne, 223, 243
Vincennes, INSEP, 179
vitesse bourgeoise, la, 39
vitesse des pauvres, la, 32, 150, 152, 251
Vivie, Paul de, 8, 10, 13, 76, 94–100, 219, 242, 255
bicycle as emancipation, 97
promoting touring, 96
Vélocio's newspaper, 95
Voeckler, Thomas, 253–4
Voynet, Dominique, 232
VTT, 7–8, 154, 156, 194–8, 200, 215, 217, 242–4
a new leisure-sport, 195
fun or federated?, 197
‘invention’ of MTB, 156
MTB industry, 198
Stéphane Hauvette, 196–8
VTT Magazine, 154, 197
Vuelta a Espana, 101
VVV, 220, 232–3, 241–2, 244, 248, 252
aims, 232
definition, 232
Mission nationale VVV, 232
rural leisure cycling, 232
Wander, 217
Weber, Eugen, 5, 57, 77
wheels, 12, 14, 109, 152, 154, 217
Wiggins, Bradley, 178, 249
Wille, Fabien, 175
Winock, Michel, 78
women, 6–7, 10, 12, 16, 24–5, 29, 34–43, 56, 99, 127, 132, 138, 153, 179, 182–3, 186–7, 202–6, 209–15, 228, 242, 248
and sport, 202
class distinctions, 38
clothing, 42
cycling clubs, 41
cycling debates, 34, 138, 203
earliest cycling, 34
early utility cycling, 39
emancipation, 38, 41
femininity, 6, 37, 203–4, 210, 213–4
feminism, 204
femmes nouvelles, les, 35
first race, 34
in cycling sport, see ‘Longo’
market for female cycling, 205
medical issues, 16, 35–9, 42, 165, 205, 234
racing, 35–42, 202, 204, 210
racing as objectification, 37
revolutionary impact, 42
sexism, 203, 205, 214
sociability, 40
Tour de France féminin, 209–17
touring, 138
women's Tour, 209–17
working class, 16, 32, 37–9, 44, 90–1, 104, 107–9, 112, 115, 117, 121–2, 127, 145, 160, 172, 191–2, 235, 251
heroes, 109
roots, 145
sport, 123, 125–6
world championships, 67, 71, 147, 178–81, 184, 197, 199, 202, 206, 251
World Trade Fair 1893, 68
Wybon, early Roubaix rider, 126
yellow jersey, 65, 111, 114, 143–4, 146–7, 166–7, 169–70, 172, 233, 238, 253
its introduction in 1919, 111
why yellow?, 238
Yonnet, Paul, 168–9, 171, 228
Zay, Jean, 105, 123
Zéfal company, 241
Zimmerman, Augustus, 43, 65, 68