This chapter continues the previous chapter’s overview of British shipping conventions, picking up in 1689 at the turning point of industry growth and continuing into the late eighteenth century. It pays particular attention to the Anglo-French wars between 1689-1713 and the effect they had on shipping growth, resulting in both temporary setbacks and long-term economic depression. It examines the Union of England and Scotland, the sharp decline of Anglo-French trade and the compensatory increase in trade with Portugal, and non-war related declines such as trade with Turkey and the decline of the Newfoundland Fishery. It catalogues the shipping tonnage of major English ports, and contrasts Bristol, Liverpool, and Hull in regard to several aspects of shipping such as the growing slave trade. It concludes with the growth of international and transatlantic trade, and the transformation of British shipping in anticipation of modern shipping technology.
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