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Race on Display in 20th- and 21st Century France$

Katelyn E. Knox

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9781781383094

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.5949/liverpool/9781781383094.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM LIVERPOOL SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.liverpool.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Liverpool University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in LSO for personal use.date: 31 July 2021

(p.218) Index

(p.218) Index

Source:
Race on Display in 20th- and 21st Century France
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
113 194n77
1931 colonial exhibition see Exposition coloniale de 1931
2009 National Identity Debate 13, 45, 69, 124, 136−37
53 cm (Bessora) 183n10
Asalfo 72
abolition of slavery 12, 53−54
see also slavery
Adventures in Afropea I (Zap Mama) 102
affirmative action 103
Africa
European stereotypes of 24, 88−89
Francophone sub-Saharan, literature and culture of 54−59, 71−73, 75−76, 80−84, 116
African American(s) 6
Africans and Afropeans versus 103−04
authorship 56−57
presence in France 103−04
music of 96, 112−13, 117, 131−32
African Gigolo (Njami) 170n38, 174n12
African(s)
in France 11−19, 43−48
musicians 48, 59−60, 64−68, 72−73, 91
treatment of, versus African Americans 103−04
writers 58, 78−79, 84
see also immigration
Afrique fantôme, L’ (Leiris) 88−89
Afropea(n) 12, 15, 17, 20, 81, 92−121
Akofa, Henriette 54−55
Algerian War for Independence 146
Alibert, Henri 25, 27
Alliance générale contre le racisme et pour le respect de l’identité française et chrétienne (AGRIF) 120, 145−46, 150−52
Alloula, Malek 24, 33
Amselle, Jean-Loup 125, 150
Ancestry in Progress (Zap Mama) 102, 104
Annick and Janklod 117
‘Another Day in Paradise’ (Collins) 87
anti-Semitism 147−48
anti-white racism 20, 119−20, 122, 145−52
anti-French racism versus 145−46
reverse racism versus 193n68
Antillean(s) 73, 116
Appadurai, Arjun 94, 115
‘Armstrong’ (Nourago) 87
Arthur H. 117
Ashcroft, Bill 78
assimilation 21−23, 25, 39−40, 126
clothing as a sign of 25−32
atalaku 72
(p.219) Aubes écarlates:
Sankofa cry, Les (Miano) 112
Auslander, Leora 110
authenticity 42
of African authors 58, 79, 84−86
of clothing labels in Black Bazar 81−83
of colonial subjects at Exposition coloniale 23−27, 34−36, 41
authorship
African 58, 78−79, 84
race and sponsorship 56−57, 74−79
scrittura a quattro mani in Italy 56
autoethnography 73−75, 87
Autre Dumas, L’ (Nebbou) 94
Aventures de Papoul, Les 19, 34−36, 41
Awala, Alexandre Biyidi see Mongo Beti
Baartman, Saartjie 7
Babar 29, 33
Badu, Erykah 102
Bailey, Brett 1−3, 7−8
Baloji 115
Bams 1, 116
Banania 27, 41, 110
Bancel, Nicolas 156−57
‘Bandy Bandy’ (Zap Mama) 102, 113
banlieue
literature and films of 45−46, 136
riots of 2005 13, 20, 147
Batouala (Maran) 77
Beau temps des colonies, Le 41
Bebey, Francis 117
Beethoven, Ludwig van 112
Begag, Azouz 174n8
Berlinoise (N’Sondé) 183n10
Berthelot, Chantal 195n5
Besson, Eric 13, 140
Besson immigration law 140
Bessora 95
Beti, Mongo 77, 79−80, 86
beur 45−46, 141
Beyala, Calixthe 47, 54, 67, 79, 97
Bhabha, Homi 32, 34
Biyaoula, Daniel 174n12
black 6−20, 120−27, 161
authorship 56−58, 74−79, 84, 87
bodies on display 1−3, 5, 7−10, 13−20, 44−48, 60−68, 132
racial identity in cultural works 73−80, 90−91, 118−20, 123−27, 152−55
Black Bazar (Mabanckou) 12, 15−16, 19−20, 24, 70−92, 96, 142, 154−55, 160
black France 15, 17
heterogeneity of 73−74, 92, 95, 121
Black Skin, White Masks (Fanon) 4, 14, 91, 106, 117−18
Blanchard, Pascal 21, 67, 69
Bleich, Erik 146
Bleu-Blanc-Rouge (Mabanckou) 49, 72, 74, 81
blues music 112
Blues pour Élise (Miano) 12, 15, 20, 24, 69, 92−119, 154−57, 160
Boston, Valéry 116
Boto, Eza see Mongo Beti
Bouamama, Saïd 20, 70, 120−21, 127, 136−38, 145−46, 150−51
Braidotti, Rosi 143
Breton, André 89−90
Brezault, Éloïse 77
Brozgal, Lia 16
Bruckner, Pascal 11
Buster Robert 143−44, 151
Cahier d’un retour au pays natal (Césaire) 89
Camfranglais 114
Candide (Voltaire) 87
canon 16, 87−88, 91, 138
(p.220) Cazenave, Odile 49, 79
Ceddo (Sembene) 105
Célérier, Patricia 79
censorship 105, 147
authors’ self-censorship 58, 89
of racist imagery 42
Césaire, Aimé 54, 76, 89
Chambers, Iain 50
chanson music 64, 136
Chao, Manu 19, 48, 64−66
Charef, Mehdi 174n9
Chevrier, Jacques 46
Chirac, Jacques des bruits et des odeurs speech 87
Chow, Rey 16, 24
Cité nationale de l’histoire de l’immigration (CNHI) see Museum of Immigration
‘Clandestino’ (Chao) 19, 48, 64−66, 68−69
Clément, Pascal 147
clothing see fashion
Coeur des enfants léopards, Le (N’Sondé) 183
Collectif égalité 47, 97
Collins, Phil 87
colorblind universalism in France 14, 98, 103, 120−27, 130, 137, 145−46, 153, 160
comics
French colonial children’s comics 9, 19, 21−26, 29−43
Comité national pour la mémoire et l’histoire de l’esclavage (CNMHE) 11−12, 157
Comité pour la mémoire et l’histoire de l’esclavage (CPMHE) see Comité national pour la mémoire et l’histoire de l’esclavage (CNMHE)
communautarisme 14
Compagnies républicaines de sécurité (CRS) 44, 60
complicity 2, 8, 12, 17, 20, 43, 48, 65, 70, 93, 137, 140
concurrence victimaire 11−12
‘Confessions of a sapeur’ (Mabanckou) 81
Conseil représentatif des associations noires de France (CRAN) 2, 13, 42
Conseil Supérieur de l’Audiovisuel (CSA) 97−99
Contours du jour qui vient (Miano) 112
Contre Exhibit B 1
Copé, Jean-François 149−50
‘Corbeau et le renard, Le’ (Voltaire) 138
Côte d’Ivoire 71−73
coupé-décalé 71−73
Cueillez-moi jolis messieurs (Bessora) 183n10
cultural marketplace 2
display of minority authors in 9−10, 15−17, 57, 78, 90, 122, 140, 142
how minority authors and works contest from within 16−17, 20, 43, 48, 70, 74−75, 85−86, 92−93, 95−96, 118, 128, 142, 155
cultural studies 9−10, 24, 121, 160−61
disciplinary institutionalized spectacularism of 17−18, 20, 123, 152, 161
Cuvier, Georges 7
danse des griffes 72, 74, 82−85, 87−89
Das Kapital (Marx) 87
de Brunhoff, Jean 29
‘De la Reconnaissance’ (Essomba) 48
De Quelle Couleur sont les Blancs? Des ‘petits Blancs’ des colonies au ‘racisme anti-Blancs’ (Laurent and Leclère) 122
De Souza, Pascale 81, 88
Delacroix, Eugène 33
Dépardieu, Gérard 94
(p.221) Devoir d’Insolence (Bouamama and Z.E.P.) 20, 70, 120−22, 127, 135−46, 150−54, 160
Devoir de violence, Le (Ouologuem) 105
Diamanka, Souleymane 91
Diome, Fatou 47, 49, 95, 174n12, 183n10
Diop, Ababacar 45
Discours sur le colonialisme (Césaire) 54
discrimination
contestations of in cultural works 18, 98, 122, 139−142, 150
French anti-discrimination groups 145−50
of racial and ethnic minorities in France 97−98
display
of racial and ethnic minority authors and artists in cultural marketplaces 9−10, 15−17, 57, 78, 90, 122, 140, 142
of racial and ethnic minority bodies in France 1−11, 21−25
of racial and ethnic minorities in French history 12, 95
of racial and ethnic minorities in French media 13−15, 44−48, 93−99, 103, 119
relationship to power and privilege 3−10, 18, 93−94, 154−56
DNA testing for migrants 126−27
Docker noir, Le (Sembene) 54−55
Donadey, Anne 24, 104
‘Douce France’
by Charles Trenet 128
by Les Enfants du Pays 128−30, 135
Du Bois, W. E. B. 4
Dumas, Alexandre 94
Dyer, Richard 122, 127, 140
‘Écrans pâles’ conference 98, 119
Écrivain et oiseau migrateur (Mabanckou) 81
Ehrmann, Charles 147
El Yazami, Driss 196n12
El-Tayeb, Fatima 11, 123
Ellison, Ralph 6
Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures, The (Ashcroft, Griffiths, Tiffin) 78
Enfant noir, L’ (Laye) 80, 83, 87
Enfants du Pays, Les 128−29
engagement 74−75, 79, 84
Equiano, Olaudah 55
Esclave moderne, Une (Akofa) 54−55
Essomba, J. R. 16, 19, 47−58
ethnic statistics
in France 14, 127
quotas on television in France 98−99, 103
versus American Affirmative action 103
ethnographic exhibition(s) see human zoo(s)
‘Exhibit B’ 1−8, 18, 116, 154−56
exoticism
at colonial exhibitions 22−23, 35, 40−43, 132
in cultural marketplaces 8, 16, 19−20, 48−49, 57, 80−82, 117, 136, 140−43
in discipline of French cultural studies 20−21, 143, 153
Exposition coloniale de 1931 8−9, 11, 18−19, 21−25, 27, 34−43, 46−47, 67, 132, 158
Fabe and Salif 194n77
Fanon, Frantz 4, 6, 14, 91, 93, 106, 117−18
Fassin, Éric 5, 126, 155
Fatou la Malienne (Vigne) 174n12
feminist theory 3−4, 33
Femmes algériennes 1960 (Garanger) 33
Femmes d’Alger dans leur appartement (Delacroix) 33
Féral, Roger 27
Fillon, François 149
Fillon Law 146−47
Finkielkraut, Alain 146
Flouka, Kamel 136
Forsdick, Charles 12
Foucault, Michel 4
Franc, Géo 35−36
France
African American experience in 103−04
image as El Dorado 71−72, 81
colonial literature and music of 19, 21−43, 88−89, 110
francophone
celebrity authors 48
cultural studies (discipline) 10, 20, 150−52, 160
as taxonomy see francophonie
francophonie 15−16, 74−76, 91
Frankenberg, Ruth 150
French civilizing mission see mission civilisatrice
French colonized troops see tirailleurs sénégalais
French language
and classification of Francophone authors 75−76
and notions of purity 137−38
questioning artists’ and characters’ ability to speak 16, 55−56, 141
subversion in coupé-décalé music 72
French memory laws 11−12, 69
French national identity
articulated or critiqued in cultural works 23, 45−46, 59−60, 62−63, 99−102, 119, 130−32, 135−39, 146
legislation 45, 50, 68
minorities’ exclusion from 8−13, 18, 99−100, 111, 120−21, 152−55, 159−61
relationship to whiteness 14, 18−20, 118−19, 120−130, 132, 147−153
role of history in 52, 68−70, 95, 124−27
French publishing industry agency of African authors within 46−47, 57, 77, 83−84
Front National see National Front
Für Elise (Beethoven) 112
Galli, João 151
Gallo, Max 185n27
Garanger, Marc 33
García Marquez, Gabriel 76
Gaul(s) 79, 149
(p.223) place in French national mythology 159−60
Gaye, Marvin 117
gaze
in children 3, 9, 19, 23−25
colonial/imperial gaze 21−24
counter and oppositional 6−8, 37, 93, 144, 155
cultural marketplace and 15−16, 45−46, 74−76
erotic dimensions 24, 33, 39
film and television as 44−45, 93−101
gazing subject 1−11, 33, 35, 40−41, 121, 123, 143−45
gendered dimensions 4, 32, 38−39, 93, 121, 160−61
look versus 5−6, 10, 22−23, 33, 36−37, 154−59
relationship to power and privilege 3−10, 18, 93−94, 154−56
right of versus responsibility to 19, 28, 35−36, 39−40
stare versus 6−8, 65−67
surveillance versus 4, 23−25, 33−34, 39, 45, 68
genealogy
cultural 59−60, 102, 116
relationship to French national identity 123, 125−27, 130−32, 135−37, 152−53
Shale’s in Blues pour Élise 105, 109
of term ‘anti-white racism’ 149
Gilroy, Paul 51
Giscard d’Estaing, Valéry 125
Goldberg, David Theo 124
Gone du Chaâba, Le (Begag) 174n8
Goût des jeunes filles, Le (Laferrière) 87
Grass, Günter 76
griffe(s) 45, 72, 74, 82−90
Griffin, Gabriele 143
Griffiths, Gareth 78
griot 58−59, 131
Grosdidier, François 147
Guéant, Claude 126−27
Guène, Faïza 13
‘Gueuele du patrimoine, La’ (Z.E.P.) 16, 136−37, 140−44, 153, 155
Habiter la Frontière (Miano) 94, 110−11
Hachomer Hatzaïr 146−47
Haine, La (Kassovitz) 174n9
Hall, Stuart 7, 34, 93
Harem colonial: images d’un sous-érotisme, Le (Alloula) 24, 33
Hargreaves, Alec 17
Haut Conseil à l’Intégration (HCI) 96
Hemingway, Ernest 76
Hergé 88
hexagon 11−12, 45, 73, 94
Hintermann-Afféjee, Mémona 98
hip-hop 131−32, 136, 143, 147
history of French colonization in francophone works 45, 52−55, 59, 62, 66−69, 96, 102, 118, 130, 132−33
in French legislation 11−12, 69
role in national identity formation 68−70, 95, 102, 124−27
Hitchcott, Nicki 13, 17, 95, 113
Holt, Thomas 110
hooks, bell 5−6, 10, 37, 93, 97, 144
Hottentot Venus see Baartman, Saartjie
Huggan, Graham 9, 16, 48, 57, 82
human zoo(s) 1−3, 5, 7, 12, 21, 37, 67, 157−59
hybridity 21, 23, 25
immigrant(s) 11, 14−15
foreigners versus 14−15, 60, 98−100, 119−121, 125, 130, 160
as a proxy for racial and ethnic minorities 14, 125, 136−37, 159−60
media depictions of 44−45
see also sans-papiers
immigration to France 11, 14−15
compared to slavery 50−51, 53−56, 59−62, 66, 69
depicted in migritude works 19, 46−58
policies 140, 173n2, 178n50
as inherited trait 125−26
as a proxy for racial and ethnic minorities 14, 125, 136−37, 159−60
Impasse, L’ (Biyaoula) 174n12
Indigènes de la République, Les 6, 13, 136
inexpulsables-irrégularisables 44
‘Inscris, “je suis arabe”’ (Z.E.P.) 137
institutional spectacles 8−9, 18−19, 24, 154
institutionalized spectacularism 8−20, 24, 47, 49, 57, 70, 74−75, 85, 90, 93, 96, 103, 111, 118, 120−21, 124, 128, 137, 142, 150−53, 155, 160
Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, The (Equiano) 55
Intérieur de la nuit, L’ (Miano) 112
intermediality 92, 96−96, 111−115, 118, 121, 135−36, 151, 160
Invisible Man (Ellison) 6
Io, venditore di elefanti (Khouma) 56
Irele, Abiola 182n33
Islam 105, 126
issu de l’immigration 125−26
Jackson, Millie 117
Janniot, Alfred 158
Jardin de l’Outre-Mer 12, 20, 156−59
jazz music 16, 112, 116, 132
Je suis noir et je n’aime pas le manioc (Kelman) 90
‘Je suis sans-papiers’ (Meiway) 19, 48, 64, 66−69, 144, 155
Jet Set 71−72
‘Joli Chapeau’ (Claveau) 28
Jules-Rosette, Benetta 175n14
Julliard, Jacques 146
Juppé, Alain 44
jus sanguinis 125
jus soli 62, 125
Kaplan, E. Ann 22
Kassovitz, Matthieu 174n9
Keaton, Trica 17, 124
Keïta, Salif 19, 48, 58−64, 121, 127−35
Kelman, Gaston 90
Khaled, Cheb 139
Khouma, Pap 56
Kiffe kiffe demain (Guène) 174n9
King, Adele 181n27, 182n33
Kleppinger, Kathryn 45−46, 48
Kohlhagen, Dominic 71−72
Konate, Yacouba 72
Kouchner, Bernard 146
Lacan, Jacques 3
Laferrière, Dany 87
Lang, Jack 147
Laurent, Sylvie 122
Laye, Camara 80, 83−84, 87
Le Pen, Jean-Marie 125
Lebrun, Barbara 66
Leclère, Thierry 122
Leiris, Michel 88−89
(p.225) Léopold Nord et Vous 117
Ligue française pour la défense des droits de l’homme et du citoyen 149
Ligue internationale contre le racisme et l’antisémitisme (LICRA) 148−49
Lionnet, Françoise 78
Lipsitz, George 67, 132
literary prizes in France 15, 56, 77−78
see also authorship
Loi du 23 février (2005) 11−12, 69
Loi Bonnet 173n2
Loi Guigou (1998) 178n50
Loi Pasqua 173n2, 178n50
Loko, Bill 117
Londres, Albert 89
looking back 22, 93−95, 154−59
at audience 67, 144
at past 108
see also gaze; Sankofa
Love in the Time of Cholera (García Marquez) 76
Lumières de Pointe-Noire (Mabanckou) 86
Lunatic 194n77
Lyautey, Maréchal 21
M. C. Solaar 191n47
M. C. Jean-Pierre 143−44, 151
Mabanckou, Alain 12, 15, 19−20, 24, 47, 49, 58, 70−76, 80−81, 86, 91, 96, 135, 142
MacGyver 87
Magic System 72
manifeste des quarante-quatre see pour une littérature-monde en français manifesto
Manifeste pour une droite décomplexée (Copé) 149
Mano Negra 64
maquis 71
Maran, René 77
Mariani, Thierry 126
Marx, Karl 87
Mazauric, Catherine 113
Mbembe, Achille 54, 89
McIntosh, Peggy 93
mediascape 20, 92−97, 111, 113, 115, 117, 119
Mediavilla, Héctor 81
Meiway 19, 48, 64, 66−69, 144, 155
métissage 60, 140
métropole 32, 39, 67, 69, 80, 131
Miano, Léonora 6, 12−13, 15, 19−20, 24, 69−70, 77, 93−96, 108−19, 135
Middle Passage 50−51
migritude 19, 46−49, 67, 72−73, 81
Miller, Christopher 50
mimesis 25, 28−29
Ministère A.M.E.R. 194n77−78
Ministry of Immigration, Integration, National Identity, and Codevelopment 13, 99
Mishima, Yukio 76
mission civilisatrice 19, 21, 27−28, 33, 39, 88
Mitterrand, François 125
Mitterrand, Frédéric 42
Mondondo, Bienvenu Mbutu 42
Mongo-Mboussa, Boniface 47
Monsieur R 194n77
Monteux, Jacques 27
Morton, Patricia 21−22
Moudileno, Lydie 48, 61
Mouvement contre le racisme et pour l’amitié entre les peuples (MRAP) 148−49
multiculturalism 63, 69, 129, 138, 157
Mulvey, Laura 4, 32
Musée de l’histoire de l’immigration see Museum of Immigration
Musée du Quai Branly 69
Musée national des arts d’Afrique et d’Océanie 158
Museum of Immigration 69, 158−60
(p.226) Music, The (Mishima) 76
N’Sondé, Wilfried 95
naming 9, 15, 32, 65
of Afropeans 95−96, 101−02, 111−12
of racial and ethnic minorities in France 14, 60, 99, 127
of sans-papiers 44
of Shale in Blues pour Élise 96, 106−12
of whiteness 18, 119, 122−23, 140, 148
National Front 145−46, 150
native informant
in children’s comics 36
minority author as 47, 74, 80, 86
NDiaye, Marie 77−78
Ndiaye, Pap 6
Nebbou, Saffy 94
Négro et Négrette à l’Exposition 19, 33, 36−41
negros curros 173n5
Nénufar 19, 24, 45, 110
children’s comic by Pol Rab 25−32, 34, 36, 40
song recording by Féral and Monteux 28, 32−34, 36, 39, 41
neocolonialism 72−73, 82
Nimsay, Keyko 116
‘Nique la France’ (Z.E.P.) 137−40, 143−45, 151, 155
Nique ta mère (NTM) 147
Njami, Simon 47, 174n12
Noire de…, La (Sembene) 54−55
Noiriel, Gérard 11
Nora, Pierre 11
‘Nou Pas Bouger’
L’Skadrille and Salif Keïta remix (2007) 121, 129−37, 145, 152
Salif Keïta original (1989) 19, 48, 58−64, 66, 68−69
nouchi 72−73
Nourago, Claude 87
Nzapassara, Modeste 91
October 17, 1961 massacre 176n29
Old Man and the Sea, The (Hemingway) 76
Old Man Who Read Love Stories, The (Sepúlveda) 76
Ouologuem, Yambo 105
Oyono, Ferdinand 77
packaging (Watts) 15−16, 43, 57, 82, 85, 89, 95, 113−14, 117−18, 150, 155
Palm-Wine Drinkard, The (Tutuola) 75−76
Paradis du Nord, Le (Essomba) 16, 19, 47−58, 62, 65−69, 74, 154−55
paratext 15, 57, 89−90, 118
parité 99
‘Part du fromage, La’ (Z.E.P.) 138
passing 32, 35, 90
see also authenticity
Pauvre Christ de Bomba, Le (Beti) 77
Pays sans chapeau (Laferrière) 87
Penchard, Marie-Luce 157−58
Peterson, Carla 56
Petit Prince de Belleville, Le (Beyala) 54−55, 67, 174n12
petit-nègre 28, 41
Pieterse, Jan 110
Place des fêtes (Tchak) 183n10
Pol Rab 26−32
porte-parole see spokesperson
pour une littérature-monde en français manifesto 15, 76
Préférence nationale, et autres nouvelles, La (Diome) 183n10
(p.227) privilege 3−13, 18, 93−94, 154−56
‘Propos coupés-décalés d’un nègre presque ordinaire’ (Mabanckou) 73
race 6−20, 120−27, 146−47, 161
as commodity 43, 114, 118, 135−36
culture as proxy in France 124−27
immigration as proxy in France 100, 125, 136−37, 159−60
racial binarisms 63−64
racial exceptionalism 117−18
whiteness as excluded from notions of 9−10, 17−18, 161
racism 7, 47, 103
in France 2−3, 7, 24, 154
depicted in colonial comics 36−39, 41−43
relationship to gaze 24, 42−43
Radio Shalom 146−47
Raffarin, Jean-Pierre 196n12
Raoult Éric 77−78
rap music in France 20, 70, 120−21, 136−38, 141−43, 147
ratonnades anti-blancs 146−47
recognition
colonized subjects’ gratitude 25, 29, 40, 74, 77
of racial and ethnic minorities in France 6, 14−15, 48, 94−96, 100−103, 118
Reynaud, Paul 21
Rony, Fatimah 5, 31
Rosello, Mireille 42, 45−48, 52, 63
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 76
Sábado, Ernesto 76
Said, Edward 4
Saknes 136
Sambo
as a racial stock character 24, 110−11
in Blues pour Élise 106−07, 111
sampling 102, 137, 140−42
Sanglot de l’homme noir, Le (Mabanckou) 81
Sankofa 109−110, 112, 119, 154, 157
sans-papiers 11, 13
clandestine migrants versus 15
literature and music depicting 19, 43, 46−70, 127, 144, 155
St. Bernard Church affair 44−45
sape
literary sape 20, 73−75, 77, 79, 81−85, 87−92, 142, 155
fashion sape 20, 44−46, 72, 74, 80−82, 85
Sarkozy, President Nicolas 77
Sartre, Jean-Paul 4, 6, 8
Schwartz, Rémy 196n12
Seine River 52−53
self-spectacularization 44−46, 81−85
sellout 75, 78−80, 82, 84, 90
Sembene, Ousmane 54−55, 105
Senghor, Léopold Sédar 27
Sepúlveda, Luis 76
Sferdjella, Salim 136
Shih, Shuh-mei 78
Shilton, Siobhán 49
Silence des esprits, Le (N’Sondé) 183n10
Sissako, Abderrahmane 54
Skadrille, L’ 121, 127, 130−34
slavery
commemoration of abolition versus 11−12, 53−54
comparisons with postcolonial immigration 50−51, 53−56, 59−62, 66, 69
(p.228) representations in Blues pour Élise 105−11
Smala 194n77
Soft (musician) 117
SOS Racisme 149
soukous 72, 91
spectacle 5−10, 33−34, 38−41, 67
exotic/ethnographic 22, 48, 110, 133, 142−44, 154
institutional 18−19, 24
spectator see gaze, gazing subject
spokesperson
author or artist as 46−47, 58, 65−66, 68−69, 74−75, 78−80, 138
of sans-papiers 45−47
stereotypes 34, 42
of African authors 80, 89
of racial and ethnic minorities contested in literature and music 18−20, 51−52, 55−56, 67−68, 92, 117−18, 132, 140−43
of racial and ethnic minorities in French colonial culture 17, 19, 24, 27, 38, 42, 110, 132
of racial and ethnic minorities on French television 97−98
Stovall, Tyler 17, 104
suburb see banlieue
surrealist counter exhibition 22, 196
surveillance
of colonized subjects as proxy for colonies 24−25, 33−34, 39, 45
gaze versus 4, 23
of racial or ethnic minorities 68
Tais-toi et meurs (Mabanckou) 81
Taubira, Christiane 54
Tchak, Sami 95
television in France
representations of minorities on 45, 92−93, 96−101, 103, 140
intermediality of Blues pour Élise 112−14, 160
Tels des Astres Éteints (Miano) 95, 113
Terre d’ébène (Londres) 89
Thé au harem d’Archi Ahmed, Le (Charef) 174n9
Thomas, Dominic 13, 17, 55−56, 78, 95, 126
Tiffin, Helen 78
Tin, Louis-Georges 14, 17
Tin Drum, The (Grass) 76
Tintin au Congo 24, 28, 42, 88−89
tirailleurs sénégalais 41, 62, 110
Toubab 36−39
Toubon, Jacques 196n12
Trenet, Charles 128−29
Trois Femmes puissantes (NDiaye) 77
‘Troubadour’ (Z.E.P.) 138−39
Trouillot, Michel-Rolph 69
Tshimanga, Charles 147
Tunnel, The (Sábato) 76
Turner, Nat 110
Tutuola, Amos 76
Union pour un mouvement populaire (UMP) 77−78, 147, 149
universality 65, 99, 117, 148
Ventre de l’Atlantique, Le (Diome) 49−51
Vergès, Françoise, 12, 53−54, 124−25, 157−58
Verre cassé (Mabanckou) 81, 91
Versace, Lino 71
Vie de Boy, Une (Oyono) 77
Vie sur Terre, La (Sissako) 54
Vieux Nègre et la médaille, Le (Oyono) 77
Vigne, Daniel 174n12
Ville cruelle (Beti) 77
visibility of racial and ethnic minorities in France 6, 20, 94−98, 102, 111
vivre ensemble 128−29, 135, 195n72
(p.229) Voltaire 87, 138
Waberi, Abdourahman 47, 175n14
Walsh, John 91
Watts, Richard 16, 57
whiteness 18−20
of French history 94−96, 101, 140
of/in French media 92, 97, 113
as implicit or invisible norm 5, 10, 32, 132, 139, 144−45
relationship to authorship 75
relationship to gazing subject/object position 121, 123, 137, 143−44, 155, 161
studies (discipline) 5, 9−10, 17−20, 121−23, 152−53, 161
Winders, James 58
world music 15−16
xenophobia in France 150, 159
Yancy, George 6, 122
Zack, Naomi 125, 137
Zap Mama 102, 104, 113
zoblazo 48, 66
Zone d’Expression Populaire (Z.E.P.) 16−17, 20, 70, 139−45
zoot suits 173n5