With this chapter begins the analysis of the global spread of Scottish ethnic associations. America was where organisations first developed outside of the British and Irish Isles, and it was benevolence that provided the initial impetus for the development of Scottish associations. They began to proliferate in the late 18th century, spreading west and north to what was to become Canada. From the mid-19th century the activities of associations diversified, with Highland Games and Scottish mutual aid societies becoming popular.
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