This chapter considers the many major and minor influences on Juvenal’s tenth satire – the poet’s own experiences; ancient rhetoric (including the exemplum, deliberative oratory, praeteritio and sententiae); philosophy (a combination of various schools of thought, especially Socratic thought (via Valerius Maximus); Democritus; Epicureanism; Stoicism, including Seneca and Persius Satire 2; Horace Odes 1.31. All of the above sources are adapted as well as adopted to produce something new and distinctly Juvenalian.
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