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French Scientific and Cultural Diplomacy$
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Philippe Lane

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9781846318658

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.5949/liverpool/9781846318658.001.0001

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French Foreign Cultural Activities: A Tradition with a Long History

French Foreign Cultural Activities: A Tradition with a Long History

Chapter:
(p.7)

1 French Foreign Cultural Activities: A Tradition with a Long History

Source:
French Scientific and Cultural Diplomacy
Author(s):

Philippe Lane

Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:10.5949/liverpool/9781846318658.003.0002

Ancien Régime scientists and artists serving in European courts provided a French presence and their preparation of treaties gave culture and diplomacy a vital role; the eighteenth century witnessed the global spread of French cultural and scientific activities culminating in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man. The Alliance française was created in 1883 through foreign-based French dignitaries: schools abroad followed; prior to the Great War rivals to France aimed to maintain or enhance their influence on the elites of other nations: French diplomats advanced and defended the French language in international organizations. War required established networks to be realigned according to usefulness, and the interwar period saw the cultural, linguistic and humanitarian budget share increasing. During the Second World War, the Free French prioritized the winning over of schools abroad, the Alliance française head office moved Paris to London, intensifying Vichy's isolation; after hostilities, the policy was redefined for teaching French abroad, leading to a major training programme for the leaders of state and industry in developing countries. Modernization meant professionalization, exchange, media, and overhauling the diplomatic service, with globalization and changing strategies of influence: cultural and scientific elements are now essential to the foreign activities of Franc

Keywords:   history, war, globalization, Alliance française

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