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Before the WindrushRace Relations in 20th-Century Liverpool$
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John Belchem

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9781846319679

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: September 2014

DOI: 10.5949/liverpool/9781846319679.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM LIVERPOOL SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.liverpool.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Liverpool University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in LSO for personal use.date: 02 June 2020

1960s

1960s

race and youth

Chapter:
(p.197) Chapter Six 1960s
Source:
Before the Windrush
Author(s):

John Belchem

Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:10.5949/liverpool/9781846319679.003.0007

Obscured by national preoccupation with immigration and new arrivals, the discrimination and disadvantage experienced by Liverpool-born black youths lay concealed and festering beneath the spurious local rhetoric of harmonious relations espoused by politicians and the media. Denied any recognition of their ‘special but not separate’ needs, Liverpool-born black youths were harassed by the police in the moral panic over mugging. While cordial relations between the police and black community leaders came to an abrupt end, black youths reacted more forcefully, rejecting mainstream values in favour of ‘black power’. As academics and professionals working in the field warned the Select Committee on Race Relations, Liverpool was no longer the role model but an object lesson, foreshadowing problems soon to come elsewhere. The riots of 1972 were the siren call, warning of trouble ahead in other cities as British-born black children of the ‘Empire Windrush’ generation approached adolescence, alienation and racial polarisation.

Keywords:   black youths, police harassment, mugging, racial discrimination, racial disadvantage

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