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Before the WindrushRace Relations in 20th-Century Liverpool$
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John Belchem

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9781846319679

Published to Liverpool Scholarship Online: September 2014

DOI: 10.5949/liverpool/9781846319679.001.0001

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The failure of community relations

The failure of community relations

(p.225) Chapter Seven The failure of community relations
Before the Windrush

John Belchem

Liverpool University Press

This chapter considers why prescient warnings from Liverpool went largely unheeded. Blighted by recession and shunned by ‘new Commonwealth’ migrants, Liverpool was in seemingly unstoppable collapse. Against this backcloth, community relations continued to deteriorate as hard-pressed agencies seeking to regenerate and rehabilitate the city seldom bothered to include, yet alone prioritise, measures to address racial discrimination and disadvantage in a succession of ill-fated plans and projects to tackle multiple deprivation. Still to acknowledge the ‘special but not separate’ needs of the long-resident black British population in the city, the Council simply sought to catch up with developments elsewhere, implementing English language centres and other forms of reception provision for new immigrant arrivals. Of little relevance to long-established and long-suffering black Liverpudlians, such projects caused anger and offence, hindering the efforts of those seeking to promote community relations.

Keywords:   recession, multiple deprivation, regeneration, ‘new Commonwealth’ immigration, racial discrimination, racial disadvantage

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